Indonesia: Regional Cooperation

BIMP-EAGA: Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia-Malaysia-The Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area

The Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA) initiative was launched in 1994 as a cooperation initiative by the four national governments to close the development gap across and within the EAGA member countries as well as across the ASEAN-6 member states.

BIMP-EAGA cooperation aims to increase trade, tourism and investments with and outside the subregion by:

  • Facilitating the free movement of people, goods, and services;
  • Making the best use of common infrastructure and natural resources; and
  • Taking the fullest advantage of economic complementation.

The BIMP-EAGA initiative is envisioned to be private sector-led and market-driven. Its goal is to accelerate economic development in focus areas which, although geographically distant from their national capitals, are in strategic proximity to each other, in one of the world's most resource-rich regions that includes the Heart of Borneo (HoB) and Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion (SSME).

Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT)

The Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT) is a classic growth triangle drawing upon strong economic complementarities, geographical proximity, and close historical, cultural and linguistic ties. Subregional cooperation under IMT-GT is an initiative by the governments of the participating countries to accelerate economic development in less developed provinces. It began in 1993, and has since grown to include 32 provinces and states, with an estimated population of 78 million in 2012.

ADB has been involved in the program since its inception and has become a development partner since 2007. IMT-GT distinguishes itself from other regional cooperation initiatives supported by ADB in that: (i) it is a grouping of sub-national entities; (ii) the private sector participates as an equal member; (iii) it has a permanent secretariat, the Centre for IMT-GT Subregional Cooperation (CIMT); and (iv) it involves multi-modal transport, with one of the three national borders being land-based and the others, nautical boundaries.