Regional Cooperation

BIMP-EAGA: Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia-Malaysia-The Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area

The Brunei Darussalam-Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP-EAGA) initiative was launched in 1994 as a cooperation initiative by the four national governments to close the development gap across and within the EAGA member countries as well as across the ASEAN-6 member states.

BIMP-EAGA cooperation aims to increase trade, tourism and investments with and outside the subregion by:

  • Facilitating the free movement of people, goods, and services
  • Making the best use of common infrastructure and natural resources
  • Taking the fullest advantage of economic complementation

The BIMP-EAGA initiative is market-driven, and operates through a decentralized organization structure involving the four governments and the private sector.

Its goal is to accelerate economic development in focus areas which, although geographically distant from their national capitals, are in strategic proximity to each other, in one of the world's most resource-rich regions Heart of Borneo (HoB) and Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion (SSME).

Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT)

The Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT) is a classic growth triangle drawing upon strong economic complementarities, geographical proximity, and close historical, cultural and linguistic ties. Subregional cooperation under IMT-GT is an initiative by the governments of the IMT countries to accelerate economic development in less developed provinces. It began in 1993, and has since grown to include 32 provinces and states, with population exceeding 70 million.

ADB is a Development Partner of IMT-GT since 2007. IMT-GT is distinct from the other regional cooperation initiatives supported by ADB in important ways:

  • it is a grouping of sub-national entities;
  • the cooperation is private-sector led; and,
  • only 1 of the 3 national borders is land-based, the others are nautical boundaries.