Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT)

Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand are neighbors sharing close historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. With southern Thailand and northern Malaysia sharing a land border, and separated from Sumatra, Indonesia only by the narrow Straits of Malacca, these three Southeast Asian nations also share vibrant and growing economic linkages.

The Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT) subregional program aims to stimulate economic development in 32 of these three countries’ less-developed states and provinces, which are home to over 54 million people. The IMT-GT is comprised of:

The IMT-GT consists of:

  • 14 provinces in southern Thailand: Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Narathiwat, Pattani, Phattalung, Satun, Songkhla, Trang, Yala, Chumphon, Ranong, Surat Thani, Phang Nga, and Phuket;
  • 8 northern states of Peninsular Malaysia: Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Penang, Perak, Perlis, and Selangor; and
  • 10 provinces of Sumatra, Indonesia: Aceh, Bangka-Belitung, Bengkulu, Jambi, Lampung, North Sumatra, Riau, Riau Islands, South Sumatra, and West Sumatra.

ADB has been involved in the IMT-GT program since its inception, and has been a Regional Development Partner since 2007. IMT-GT distinguishes itself from other regional cooperation initiatives supported by ADB in that: (i) it is a grouping of sub-national entities; (ii) the private sector participates as an equal member; (iii) it has a permanent secretariat, the Centre for IMT-GT Subregional Cooperation (CIMT) funded by its members; and (iv) it focuses on fostering not only overland trade and transport, but rather a full array of multi-modal transport links.