Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT)

The Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT) is a region of dynamic growth that draws from the strong economic complementarities of the three countries, their geographical proximity, as well as their close historical, cultural, and linguistic ties.

Southern Thailand and Northern Malaysia share a land border, which accentuates complementarities, and are separated from Sumatra only by the narrow Straits of Malacca, one of the busiest and important commercial sea routes in the region.

Cooperation under the IMT-GT subregional program is an initiative aiming to stimulate economic development in the less developed provinces of the three participating countries - 32 provinces and states in total, with an estimated population of 78 million in 2012.The program celebrated its 20th Anniversary in 2013.

The IMT-GT consists of:

  • 14 provinces in southern Thailand: Krabi, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Narathiwat, Pattani, Phattalung, Satun, Songkhla, Trang, Yala, Chumphon, Ranong, Surat Thani, Phang Nga, and Phuket;
  • 8 northern states of Peninsular Malaysia: Kedah, Kelantan, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Penang, Perak, Perlis, and Selangor; and
  • 10 provinces of Sumatra, Indonesia: Aceh, Bangka-Belitung, Bengkulu, Jambi, Lampung, North Sumatra, Riau, Riau Islands, South Sumatra, and West Sumatra.

ADB has been involved in the program since its inception and has become a development partner since 2007. IMT-GT distinguishes itself from other regional cooperation initiatives supported by ADB in that: (i) it is a grouping of sub-national entities; (ii) the private sector participates as an equal member; (iii) it has a permanent secretariat, the Centre for IMT-GT Subregional Cooperation (CIMT); and (iv) it involves multi-modal transport, with one of the three national borders being land-based and the others, nautical boundaries.