Regional Cooperation

Greater Mekong Subregion

The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, the People's Republic of China, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam.

In 1992, with ADB's assistance, the six countries entered into a program of subregional economic cooperation, designed to enhance economic relations among the countries.

The GMS Program, with support from ADB and other donors, helps the implementation of high priority subregional projects in transport, energy, telecommunications, environment, human resource development, tourism, trade, private sector investment, and agriculture.

Substantial progress has been achieved in terms of implementing GMS projects since 1992. Priority infrastructure projects worth around $11 billion have either been completed or are being implemented. Among these are the upgrading of the Phnom Penh (Cambodia)-Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam) highway and the East-West Economic Corridor that will eventually extend from the Andaman Sea to Da Nang.

Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT)

The Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT) is a classic growth triangle drawing upon strong economic complementarities, geographical proximity, and close historical, cultural and linguistic ties. Subregional cooperation under IMT-GT is an initiative by the governments of the IMT countries to accelerate economic development in less developed provinces. It began in 1993, and has since grown to include 32 provinces and states, with population exceeding 70 million.

ADB is a Development Partner of IMT-GT since 2007. IMT-GT is distinct from the other regional cooperation initiatives supported by ADB in important ways:

  • it is a grouping of sub-national entities;
  • the cooperation is private-sector led; and,
  • only 1 of the 3 national borders is land-based, the others are nautical boundaries.