Regional Cooperation

Greater Mekong Subregion

The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, the People's Republic of China, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam.

In 1992, with ADB's assistance, the six countries entered into a program of subregional economic cooperation, designed to enhance economic relations among the countries.

The GMS Program, with support from ADB and other donors, helps the implementation of high priority subregional projects in transport, energy, telecommunications, environment, human resource development, tourism, trade, private sector investment, and agriculture.

Substantial progress has been achieved in terms of implementing GMS projects since 1992. Priority infrastructure projects worth around $11 billion have either been completed or are being implemented. Among these are the upgrading of the Phnom Penh (Cambodia)-Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam) highway and the East-West Economic Corridor that will eventually extend from the Andaman Sea to Da Nang.

Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT)

The Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT) is a classic growth triangle drawing upon strong economic complementarities, geographical proximity, and close historical, cultural and linguistic ties. Subregional cooperation under IMT-GT is an initiative by the governments of the participating countries to accelerate economic development in less developed provinces. It began in 1993, and has since grown to include 32 provinces and states, with an estimated population of 78 million in 2012.

ADB has been involved in the program since its inception and has become a development partner since 2007. IMT-GT distinguishes itself from other regional cooperation initiatives supported by ADB in that: (i) it is a grouping of sub-national entities; (ii) the private sector participates as an equal member; (iii) it has a permanent secretariat, the Centre for IMT-GT Subregional Cooperation (CIMT); and (iv) it involves multi-modal transport, with one of the three national borders being land-based and the others, nautical boundaries.