Country Assistance Program Evaluation for Mongolia (2002) (Mongolian Translation)

Date: October 2002
Type: Evaluation Reports
ADB administration and governance; Evaluation
Series: Country Assistance Program Evaluations


When Mongolia joined the Asian Development Bank (ADB) in 1991, its economy was in crisis and the country was undergoing significant changes. Transition required a transformation of institutions, policies, the economy, and the financial sector. The Government had taken first steps toward reform, but assistance was required to stem the crisis, stabilize the economy, and complete the transition process. Financial support previously provided by the former Soviet Union had stopped and technical advisors had been withdrawn. Physical infrastructure, particularly power and heating supply, were on the verge of collapse. After a long period of complete isolation, officials lacked exposure and experience with market-oriented principles and thus faced enormous challenges in learning about a market-oriented economy while reforming Mongolia’s system and managing daily crisis situations. External factors such as the Asian and Russian financial crises, and adverse weather conditions created further challenges to managing the transition process.

Under these very difficult circumstances, ADB supported Mongolia’s transition process with loans worth $505 million approved between 1991 and 2001 for 25 projects in the agriculture, education, energy, finance, health, industry, telecommunications, transport, and urban development sectors. An additional $49 million was approved for technical assistance (TA) grants in the same sectors and in support of governance reforms. Overall the portfolio performed well, despite fiscal constraints that delayed implementation, and made a significant contribution to the transition process of Mongolia.

This country assistance program evaluation was conducted to assess whether ADB chose to support the right priorities over the past decade, whether assistance was well designed and implemented, and what ADB’s contribution was to the transition process. The evaluation included analyses of ADB’s economic, thematic, and sector work, country strategies and programs, loans, and TAs. It involved preliminary assessments based on document reviews, discussions with stakeholders in Mongolia, visits to project sites, and presentations of evaluation methodology, design, and initial findings. The evaluation was structured around the main transition themes of building capacities, reforming policies, reorienting and diversifying the economy, and transforming the financial system. A case study was also conducted on the environment, given its importance to Mongolia.


  • Basic Data
  • Executive Summary
  • Background
  • Country Operations
  • Supporting Transition
  • Environment
  • Overall Assessment
  • Continuing Transition Agenda
  • Appendixes