Economic Costs of Rising Sea Levels in Asia and the Pacific

Teeming with people and economic activity, the coastal areas of Asia and the Pacific are highly vulnerable to storm surges, coastal erosion, flooding, and inundation resulting from sea-level rise and climate change. Here's a by the numbers look at the economic costs of rising sea levels.

East Asia

About 12 million: The number of people in 23 East Asian cities who are at risk of severe flooding from rising sea levels.
Source: ADB publication Economics of Climate Change in East Asia

$864 billion: Estimated value of assets in these 23 cities that are exposed to a 1-in-100-year flood.
Source: ADB publication Economics of Climate Change in East Asia

Less than 0.3% of GDP: Annual cost between 2010 and 2050 to protect the most vulnerable sectors - infrastructure, coastal zones, and agriculture - from the effects of climate change.
Source: ADB publication Economics of Climate Change in East Asia

Southeast Asia

Up to 3 millimeters: The rise in sea level per year between 1951 and 2000 according to the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Source: ADB publication The Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia

More than twice: By 2100, the mean cost of climate change for Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam could be equivalent to losing 6.7% of combined GDP each year, more than twice the global average loss.
Source: ADB publication The Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia

$5 billion: The average yearly cost of adaptation measures in the four countries by 2020. The annual benefit in terms of avoided damage from climate change is likely to exceed the annual cost after 2060.
Source: ADB publication The Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia

South Asia

4 countries: Poor people in the low-lying river deltas of Bangladesh, India, the Maldives, and Sri Lanka are at the highest risk.
Source: ADB publication Economics of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in South Asia

Less than 2 meters: Highest point in the Maldives. The very survival of the country is in jeopardy because of climate change, as the average height of its islands is 1.5 meters above mean sea level.
Source: ADB publication Economics of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in South Asia

More than 100 million hectares: Arable land affected by sea level rise in Bangladesh, as saline water intrusion threatens drinking water supply, agriculture, and aquaculture.
Source: ADB publication Economics of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in South Asia

Pacific

More than 1 meter: Sea level rise by 2100 under a medium emissions scenario. Some areas in the Pacific could see mean temperatures rise by 2°C to 3°C.
Source: ADB publication The Economics of Climate Change in the Pacific

Up to 15.2%: Of Papua New Guinea's annual GDP lost to climate change by 2100, the highest percentage in the Pacific. This is followed by Timor-Leste with potential losses of as much as 10%
Source: ADB publication The Economics of Climate Change in the Pacific

Up to $775 million: Required per year to prepare for the climate change worst case scenario. This is equivalent to 2.5% of GDP.
Source: ADB publication The Economics of Climate Change in the Pacific