Front Matter



The Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2011 (Key Indicators 2011), the 42nd edition of this series, is a statistical data book presenting economic, financial, social, and environmental indicators for the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). This issue of the Key Indicatorspresents in Part I a special chapter—Toward Higher Quality Employment in Asia—followed by statistical tables in Parts II and III with short, nontechnical commentaries on economic, financial, social, and environmental developments. Part II comprises the first set of statistical tables and commentaries, which look at the MDGs and progress in the region toward achieving key targets. The second set of tables, which are in Part III, is grouped into seven themes providing a broader picture of economic, financial, social, and environmental developments. The aim of the publication is to provide the latest key statistics on development issues concerning Asian and Pacific economies to a wide audience including policy makers, development practitioners, government officials, researchers, students, and the general public. This year, the ADB also presents the Framework of Inclusive Growth Indicators, a special supplement to the Key Indicators.

The special chapter discusses the transition to higher quality employment in developing Asia, a transition that still has far to go in spite of the region's tremendous economic growth. This trend is of special concern because employment is the critical link between economic growth and poverty reduction. In addition, rebalancing from export-led to domestic consumption-led growth will depend on increased consumer spending, which in turn depends on the growth of good (i.e., stable and well-paid) jobs. Most developing Asian economies either have not yet completed the transition to higher quality, predominantly formal sector employment, or are in the very early stages of this transition. Thus, the special chapter discusses the importance of generating higher quality employment in Asia. It identifies some of the major constraints and challenges that countries may face in improving and increasing the quality of employment and policies that could be used to resolve or mitigate some of these challenges.

This issue of Key Indicators contains statistics that convey good news of economic recovery in the region in 2010 after exhibiting remarkable resilience through the crisis years of 2008 and 2009. In almost all economies, gross domestic product (GDP) grew robustly after lower growth, or an actual contraction in some countries, during 2009. Exports have rebounded with continued growth of trade within the region. Migrants' remittances have started rising in economies where remittances were affected by the crisis in 2009. International tourist arrivals and tourism receipts are back on their precrisis growth track. On the downside,inflation, especially food item inflation, has risen in many countries with pressure from commodity prices, threatening the poor at the margin. Money supply is growing faster than nominal GDP and real interest rates are negative in several countries, thus adding to inflationary pressures.

As the target date of 2015 for achieving the MDGs approaches, the available data suggest that a majority of economies in the region are expected to meet the poverty target. Targets on enrolling children in schools, achieving gender balance in schooling, and providing safe drinking water are on track. Though progress has been made, most economies in developing Asia lag in meeting the hunger target, as well as targets to reduce maternal and child mortality, and access to improved sanitation. Improved access to tuberculosis treatment has saved many lives and HIV/AIDS sufferers now have better access to antiretroviral treatment, although universal access for all those who need it is still a long way away. The growth in the region, however, comes at the cost of increased carbon dioxide emissions and rates of deforestation in many countries, which need to be addressed for environmentally sustainable growth.

New statistical indicators in this edition include road safety indicators—for both accidents and deaths on the road, to highlight concerns on road safety—and the amounts of energy used by each country, to complement the statistics on energy supply. Part III's regional tables are based largely on a comprehensive set of country tables. These country tables are provided on a CD-ROM and at ADB's website (, rather than in print.

We appreciate the cooperation of the governments and international agencies that provided data, enhancing this year's issue. We hope Key Indicators will remain a valuable resource for monitoring the region's progress and addressing its development challenges.

Haruhiko Kuroda




The Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2011 (KI 2011) was prepared by the Development Indicators and Policy Research Division (ERDI) of the Economics and Research Department (ERD), Asian Development Bank (ADB). A team of economists and statisticians of ERDI led by Douglas Brooks, assistant chief economist, contributed to and coordinated the production of the publication.

The topic for the theme chapter (Part I) for the KI 2011 is "Toward Higher Quality Employment in Asia." The initial draft was written by Anil Deolalikar. Natalie Chun led the process of initiating, developing, and finalizing the chapter with extensive technical support from Glenita Amoranto. The chapter was based largely on contributions and background papers prepared by Mulubrhan Amare, Glenita Amoranto, Fang Cai, Natalie Chun, Lawrence Dacuycuy, Anil Deolalikar, Du Yang, Avraham Ebenstein, Robert Flanagan, Andrew Foster, Lena Hohfeld, Niny Khor, Dalisay Maligalig, Arturo Martinez, Jr., Trilok Singh Papola, Devanto Pratomo, Muhammad Raden Purnagunawan, Yue Qu, Hyun Son, Guntur Sugiyarto, and Hermann Waibel with technical assistance provided by Marife Lou Bacate, Eugenia Go, Arturo Martinez, Jr., and Eric Suan. Valuable suggestions and advice were provided by the participants of the Workshop on Creating Quality Employment in Asia held on 17–18 May 2011, including Lourdes Adriano, Ma. Socorro Gochoco Bautista, Bart Edes, Shanti Jagannathan, Patricia Imrana Jalal, Brajesh Panth, Ernesto Pernia, Sungsup Ra, Arief Ramayandi, Gyorgy Sziraczki, Myo Thant, Norio Usui, Peter Warr, Yuqing Xing, Juzhong Zhuang, Joseph Ernest Zveglich, Jr., as well as Guanghua Wan and Paul Vandenberg. Jill Gale De Villa edited the chapter and typesetting was carried out by Rhommell Rico.

Contributions from ERD's statistical partners—regional members and international organizations—that shared their data for the statistical tables on the Millennium Development Goals Indicators (Part II), regional tables (Part III), and country tables in the CD-ROM version are greatly appreciated. ADB resident missions in Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, the People's Republic of China, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam provided support in compiling the data from their respective countries. ADB's Japanese Representative Office, Pacific Liaison and Coordination Office, Philippines Country Office, South Pacific Subregional Office, and Special Office in Timor-Leste also provided invaluable help in data compilation.

The statistical tables for Parts II and III, including the country tables in the accompanying CD-ROM, were prepared by ERDI staff and consultants under the general guidance of Kaushal Joshi and Dalisay Maligalig with the technical assistance of Modesta de Castro, Pamela Lapitan, and Melissa Pascua. The research team included Glenita Amoranto, Nalwino Billones, Eileen Capilit, Barbara Dizon, Karen Firshan, Eugenia Go, Maria Kristine Manalo, Marymell Martillan, Laura Prado, Iva Sebastian, Dennis Sorino, and Eric Suan. Proofreading of statistical tables was done with the assistance of Ma. Roselia Babalo, Alma Rose Roxas, and Clarita Dalaguit-Truong, with Barbara Dizon as lead.

The commentaries for Parts II and III were prepared by Derek Blades under the direct supervision of Kaushal Joshi. The commentaries and statistical tables were reviewed by Kaushal Joshi, Niny Khor, Dalisay Maligalig, Chellam Palanyandy, Guntur Sugiyarto, and Guanghua Wan, with Cherry Lynn Zafaralla as copy editor. Typesetting was done by Joe Mark Ganaban and Rhommell Rico, who also prepared the web files and the CD-ROM. The publication would not have been possible without the cooperation of Vic Angeles, Sophia Cho, Robert Hugh Davis, Anna Juico, and Miguelito Maximo Paulino of ADB's Department of External Relations (DER), and Gregg Garcia, Wyn Lauzon, Victor Lo, Cesar Lopez, Jr., and Judy Yñiguez from the Logistics Management Unit of the Office of Administrative Services. DER's Sean Crowley, with the assistance of Gilda Nanquil, planned and coordinated the dissemination of Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2011.

Changyong Rhee
Chief Economist



Statistical Partners

The preparation and publication of Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2011 would not have been possible without the support, assistance, and cooperation of the Asian Development Bank's (ADB) partners among its regional members and in international, private, and nongovernment organizations. These partners, who shared their data, knowledge, expertise, and other information, help provide ADB, policy makers, and other data users a better understanding of the performance of countries in Asia and the Pacific so that better policies can be formulated to improve the quality of life of people around the region.

Regional Members
Afghanistan Central Statistics Organization
Da Afghanistan Bank
Armenia Central Bank of Armenia
National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia
Australia Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences
Australian Bureau of Statistics
Reserve Bank of Australia
Azerbaijan Central Bank of the Republic of Azerbaijan
State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Bangladesh Bangladesh Bank
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Finance
Bhutan Ministry of Finance
National Statistics Bureau
Royal Monetary Authority of Bhutan
Ministry of Labor and Human Resources
Brunei Darussalam Department of Statistics
Ministry of Finance
Cambodia Ministry of Economy and Finance
National Bank of Cambodia
National Institute of Statistics
China, People’s Republic of National Bureau of Statistics
People's Bank of China
State Administration of Foreign Exchange
Cook Islands Cook Islands Statistics Office
Ministry of Finance and Economic Management
Fiji, Republic of Bureau of Statistics
Reserve Bank of Fiji
Georgia National Statistics Office
Ministry of Finance of Georgia
National Bank of Georgia
Hong Kong, China Census and Statistics Department
Hong Kong Monetary Authority
India Central Statistical Organization
Ministry of Finance
Reserve Bank of India
Indonesia Bank Indonesia
Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS-Statistics Indonesia)
Japan Bank of Japan
Economic and Social Research Institute
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
Ministry of Finance
Japan Statistics Bureau
Kazakhstan Agency of Statistics of the Republic of Kazakhstan
National Bank of Kazakhstan
Kiribati Kiribati National Statistics Office
Korea, Republic of Bank of Korea
Ministry of Strategy and Finance
Statistics Korea
Kyrgyz Republic National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic
National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic
Lao People’s Democratic Republic Bank of the Lao PDR
Department of Statistics
Ministry of Finance
Malaysia Bank Negara Malaysia
Department of Statistics
Maldives Maldives Monetary Authority
Ministry of Finance and Treasury
Department of National Planning
Marshall Islands, Republic of Economic Policy, Planning and Statistics Office
Micronesia, Federated States of Division of Statistics
Office of Statistics, Budget and Economic Management,
Overseas Development Assistance and Compact Management
Mongolia Bank of Mongolia
National Statistical Office of Mongolia
Myanmar Central Bank of Myanmar
Central Statistical Organization
Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development
Nauru Nauru Bureau of Statistics
Nepal Central Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Finance
Nepal Rastra Bank
New Zealand Ministry of Economic Development
Reserve Bank of New Zealand
Statistics New Zealand
The Treasury
Pakistan Federal Bureau of Statistics
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics
Ministry of Finance
State Bank of Pakistan
Palau Bureau of Budget and Planning, Ministry of Finance
Papua New Guinea Bank of Papua New Guinea
Department of Treasury
National Statistical Office
Philippines Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
Bureau of the Treasury
Department of Budget and Management
Department of Energy
National Statistical Coordination Board
National Statistics Office
Bureau of Local Government Finance
Samoa Central Bank of Samoa
Economic Policy and Planning Division, Ministry of Finance
Singapore Economic Development Board
International Enterprise Singapore
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Manpower
Monetary Authority of Singapore
Singapore Department of Statistics
Solomon Islands Central Bank of Solomon Islands
Sri Lanka Central Bank of Sri Lanka
Department of Census and Statistics
Taipei,China Central Bank of China
Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Finance
Tajikistan National Bank of Tajikistan
Agency on Statistics under President of the Republic of Tajikistan (Tajstat)
Thailand Bank of Thailand
Ministry of Finance
National Economic and Social Development Board
National Statistical Office
Timor-Leste Banking and Payments Authority of Timor-Leste
Ministry of Finance
National Statistics Directorate
Tonga National Reserve Bank of Tonga
Ministry of Finance and National Planning
Statistics Department
Turkmenistan National Institute of State Statistics and Information (Turkmenmillihasabat)
Tuvalu Central Statistics Division, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning
Uzbekistan Cabinet of Ministers, Government of Uzbekistan
Center for Effective Economic Policy, Ministry of Economy of Uzbekistan
Central Bank of Uzbekistan
Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Uzbekistan
State Committee on the Republic of Uzbekistan on Statistics
Vanuatu Ministry of Finance and Economic Management
Reserve Bank of Vanuatu
Vanuatu National Statistics Office
Viet Nam General Statistics Office
Ministry of Finance
State Bank of Viet Nam

International, Private and Nongovernment Organizations

  • CEIC Data Company Ltd.
  • Energy Information Administration
  • European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • Food and Agriculture Organization
  • German Agency for Technical Cooperation
  • International Energy Agency
  • International Labour Organization
  • International Monetary Fund
  • International Road Federation
  • International Telecommunication Union
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
  • Secretariat of the Pacific Community
  • Standard & Poor's
  • Transparency International
  • United Nations Children's Fund
  • United Nations Development Programme
  • United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
  • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
  • United Nations Industrial Development Organization
  • United Nations Population Division
  • United Nations Statistics Division
  • United Nations World Tourism Organization
  • United States Bureau of Economic Analysis
  • United States Department of Energy
  • World Bank
  • World Health Organization
  • World Resources Institute
  • World Values Survey Organization

Guide for Users

The Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific has the following structure. The Highlights section presents key messages from various parts of the publication. Part I contains a special chapter that varies every year and deals with a topic on key policy issues, measurement issues, or development challenges. This year's special chapter discusses the importance of generating higher quality employment in Asia.

Part II comprises the data tables on indicators for the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The indicators are presented according to the United Nations revised MDG framework, which was expanded in January 2008 to include new targets for full and productive employment and decent work for all, access to reproductive health, access to treatment for HIV/AIDS, and protection of biodiversity, as agreed on by member states at the 2005 World Summit. This year's Key Indicators 2011 includes as many of the indicators for the new targets as possible. Tables in Part II present each MDG target and contain indicators associated with that target.

Part III consists of 112 tables that are not part of the MDG framework. To help readers identify the indicators more easily, the regional tables are grouped into seven themes: People; Economy and Output; Money, Finance, and Prices; Globalization; Transport, Electricity, and Communications; Energy and Environment; and Government and Governance. Each theme is further divided into subtopics. Accompanying tables in Part III contain indicators related to a subtopic.

The MDGs and themes in Parts II and III start with a short commentary with charts and boxes describing progress made by countries toward selected targets and key trends of selected indicators. The accompanying statistical tables are presented for 48 economies of Asia and the Pacific that are members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The term "country," used interchangeably with economy, is not intended to make any judgment as to the legal or other status of any territory or area. The 48 economies have been broadly grouped into developing and developed member countries aligned with the operational effectiveness of ADB's regional departments. The latter refer exclusively to the three economies of Australia, Japan, and New Zealand. Brunei Darussalam is a regional member of ADB, but is not classified as a developing country, however, the data for Brunei Darussalam are presented under the group of developing member countries. Based on ADB's regional operations, the remaining 44 developing member countries and Brunei Darussalam are further grouped into five groups based on ADB's operational regions, namely, Central and West Asia, East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. Economies are listed alphabetically per country group. The term regional members used in some tables refers to all 48 regional member countries of ADB, both developing member countries and developed member countries alike. Indicators are shown for the most recent year or period for which data are available and, in most tables, for an earlier year or period (usually 1990 or 1995).

Finally, Part IV defines the indicators in the MDGs and regional tables. The publication also has a CD-ROM containing Parts I, II, III, and IV, plus individual country tables for the 48 regional members of ADB.

Data for the MDG indicators, regional tables, and country tables are obtained mainly from two sources: ADB's statistical partners among its regional members, and international statistical agencies. Data obtained from the regional members are comparable to the extent that the regional members follow standard statistical concepts, definitions, and estimation methods recommended by the United Nations and other applicable international agencies. Nevertheless, regional members invariably develop and use their own concepts, definitions, and estimation methodologies to suit their individual circumstances, and these may not necessarily comply with recommended international standards. Thus, even though attempts were made to present the data in a comparable and uniform format, they are subject to variations in the statistical methods used by regional members, such that full comparability of data may not be possible. These variations are reflected in the footnotes of the statistical tables or noted in Data Issues and Comparability. Moreover, the aggregates for developing member countries and regional members shown in some tables are treated as approximation of the actual total or average, or growth rates, due to missing data from the primary source. No attempt has been made to impute the missing data.