Karnataka (the State) is one of India's most water-stressed states. With approximately 38% of the state's population living in urban areas, against 28% for the country as a whole, Karnataka is also the 4th most urbanized state in India, and this value is expected to increase to 50% by 2030. Karnataka's Vision 2020 anticipates increasing urbanization and industrialization. However without effective management of available resources, water will become the main constraint on economic development. The Karnataka Integrated Urban Water Management Investment Program (KIUWMIP or the Program) aims to improve water resource management in urban areas in a holistic and sustainable manner. Investment support will be provided to modernize and expand urban water supply and sanitation (UWSS) while strengthening relevant institutions to enhance efficiency, productivity and sustainability in water use.