The ADB Economics Working Paper Series is a forum for stimulating discussion and eliciting feedback on ongoing and recently completed research and policy studies undertaken by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) staff, consultants, or resource persons. The series deals with key economic and development problems, particularly those facing the Asia and Pacific region; as well as conceptual, analytical, or methodological issues relating to project/program economic analysis, and statistical data and measurement. The series aims to enhance the knowledge on Asia's development and policy challenges; strengthen analytical rigor and quality of ADB's country partnership strategies, and its subregional and country operations; and improve the quality and availability of statistical data and development indicators for monitoring development effectiveness.
Energy Efficiency Improvements in Asia: Macroeconomic Impacts
Energy efficiency has lately emerged as a key policy strategy to address the twin challenges of energy security and climate change. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), energy efficiency policies could significantly reduce the burden of energy import requirements, especially in import-dependent countries.
Diversification of Energy Supply: Prospects for Emerging Energy Sources
Asia’s burgeoning energy demand has stimulated interest in photovoltaics, wind power, and unconventional gas. This paper examines the status, future prospects, environmental implications, investment and infrastructure requirements, and risks of alternative energy sources such as solar resource, wind power, and unconventional gas.
Environmental Issues, Climate Changes, and Energy Security in Developing Asia
This paper examines four environmental dimensions of energy security—climate change, air pollution, water availability and quality, and land-use change—and the environmental impact of various energy systems. Since all energy sources have an environmental impact, policy makers must begin to incorporate the cost of these negative consequences into energy prices.
Asia's Energy Adequacy, Environmental Sustainability, and Affordability: An Overview
This paper asserts that achieving Asian energy security requires managing demand by tackling outmoded subsidies, exploring green innovations in technology and prudent infrastructure design, and changing behavior. Expanding both renewable and nonrenewable sources in an environmentally sound and cost-effective manner will likewise be critical.
District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia
Documenting differences across districts is important as it suggests that districts that manage to improve their system can expect improvements in learning outcomes and it serves as starting point in understanding what does and does not work in Indonesia’s education system.
Citizen Empowerment in Service Delivery
This paper examines different approaches for promoting empowerment and discusses conditions required for effective empowerment. It focuses on three empowerment models, including grievance redress, participatory performance monitoring, and community-driven development.