Social protection is increasingly seen as an important and, to a large extent, a missing aspect of globalization. To date, there have been few cross-country assessments of social protection in developing countries. This book is the result of a research financed by Asian Development Bank's Cooperation Fund in Support of the Formulation and Implementation of National Poverty Reduction Strategies (funded by the Government of the Netherlands) and the Poverty Reduction Cooperation Fund (funded by the Department for International Development of the Government of the United Kingdom). The research has developed a social protection index methodology that systematically and consistently presents quantitative and qualitative information at the country level. It has also been condensed into an index of the overall level of social protection. The index is calculated for six very different Asian countries, namely, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, and Viet Nam.