Pakistan: Sindh Coastal Community Development Project (formerly Sindh Coastal and Inland Community Development)

Sovereign Project | 37188-013

Summary

The overall Project impact is income and Government service access increases for poor households in Sindh Province. The outcome is improved, ecologically sustainable income and access to public services for poor residents in the eight coastal talukas (sub-districts) of Thatta and Badin districts. The outputs include: (i) sustainable community-managed income generating mangrove stands, pond/raft fisheries, and shell fisheries established; (ii) transparent and accountable community-driven mechanisms for identification, implementation and operations and maintenance of civil works and public services in place; (iii) increased and sustainable financial and non-financial services for household income generation provided, inclusive of community organizations, training and access to microfinance; (iv) environmentally sound coastal medium term development, management, and conservation plan implemented by CDA; and (v) project management system operational.

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Project Name Sindh Coastal Community Development Project (formerly Sindh Coastal and Inland Community Development)
Project Number 37188-013
Country Pakistan
Project Status Closed
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Loan
Source of Funding / Amount
Loan 2310-PAK: Sindh Coastal Community Development Project (formerly Sindh Coastal and Inland Community Development)
Asian Development Fund US$ 36.00 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Governance and capacity development
Sector / Subsector

Agriculture, natural resources and rural development - Agricultural policy, institutional and capacity development - Fishery - Forestry

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Effective gender mainstreaming
Description

The overall Project impact is income and Government service access increases for poor households in Sindh Province. The outcome is improved, ecologically sustainable income and access to public services for poor residents in the eight coastal talukas (sub-districts) of Thatta and Badin districts. The outputs include: (i) sustainable community-managed income generating mangrove stands, pond/raft fisheries, and shell fisheries established; (ii) transparent and accountable community-driven mechanisms for identification, implementation and operations and maintenance of civil works and public services in place; (iii) increased and sustainable financial and non-financial services for household income generation provided, inclusive of community organizations, training and access to microfinance; (iv) environmentally sound coastal medium term development, management, and conservation plan implemented by CDA; and (v) project management system operational.

There are four components for the proposed Project: (i) improved coastal management, including (a) mangrove planting, (b) crab/prawn pond and bivalve raft development, and (c) hatchery rehabilitation; (ii) community development, including (a) community organization, (b) demand-driven small-scale community-managed initiatives, and (c) demand-driven local government-managed medium scale initiatives; (iii) institutional capacity development, including (a) area fisheries and water quality survey survey and district capacity building, (b) support for CDA including geographic information systems (GIS), coastal development plan and monitoring arrangements, leadership and teambuilding, and (iv) project management, inclusive of the project management unit (PMU) and two district PIUs, vehicles, furnishings, equipment, and consultants.

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Sindh has a coastline of approximately 350 kilometers, a majorportion of which comprises the Indus River Delta. Significantly reduced flows in the lower Indus due to a long period of riverwater extraction upstream have reduced the availability of water from the Kotri barrage and increased tidal seawater intrusion in the lower reaches of the river. These conditions have resulted in a high level of environmental degradation, consisting of tidal saltwater intrusion, significant loss of agricultural land production, decline in the mangrove habitat, erosion along tidal creeks, and loss of inshore fish stocks. While inter-provincial water sharing agreements are a long-term issue requiring significant national

attention to resolve, the effects on the downstream areas need immediate attention.

The center of the highly fragile and rapidly changing ecosystem is the coastal areas of Thatta and Badin districts, consisting of eight talukas (subdistricts) with a population of 1.2 million. Poverty is a serious issue in rural Sindh, with 79% of the people in the project area living in under the poverty line. In addition to lack of income opportunities and poor access to Government services, coastal households have to deal with rapidly declining environmental conditions.

The downward spiral of environmental change, with a parallel increase in poverty, isolation and powerlessness under usual household resource management conditions, is the fundamental issue in the project area. Poverty is worsening at an alarming rate, as salt water intrusion weakens traditional land-based livelihoods. With declining options on the land, people increasingly are exploiting coastal resources which already have been seriously affected by the changes in the Indus Delta.

As recognized in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, the slow progress in reducing rural poverty clearly indicates the need to continue focusing on poverty interventions. The national priority to protect the vulnerable and improve their livelihoods and the double jeopardy that Sindh's coastal rural poor face are the reasons why the Project is appropriate and timely.

Impact Reduction in poverty for households in Sindh Province
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Improved, ecologically sustainable income opportunities and access to services for poor residents in the eight coastal talukas (subdistricts) of Thatta and Badin districts
Progress Toward Outcome

Participant households' yearly real income increased by 15.32% per year (PRs.396,804 per year in 2012) as compared to yearly incomes (Rs.PRs.86,616) recorded by the household income and expenditure survey (HIES) for 2006. Household yearly net income for lowest quintile in rural Sindh increased by 4.19% from PRs.86,616 per annum in 2006 to PRs.112,020 in 2012.

40% increase in roads from 2,071 km in 2007 to 2,891 km in 2012. The project contributed 46% to this increase. Average daily vehicle-km in first year for black-topped roads was 13,190 km.

14% increase in the household access to drinking water from 26% in 2005 (World Bank estimates) to 40% in 2013 (SCDA's estimate based on baseline survey 2011 and PPMS).

4,318 toilets were constructed for 14,515 un-served households.

192,233 people were provided with safety against floods through construction of 377 km roads on high platform and 35 cyclone-resistant school buildings and a training hall at Badin Hatchery, which can be used for rescue and rehabilitation of flood-affected communities.

113 kW of electricity was provided through installation of 4,515 solar light panels benefiting 7,275 hhs.

30 schools with 53 classrooms were constructed benefiting 1,613 students including 651 girls.

2,015 ha of land improved through construction of 23 flood protection structures and 4 irrigation schemes.

24,000 acres of cultivable land will be saved from sea intrusion through mangrove planting, protecting and possible future damage of $52 million in next 10 years.

The mangrove evaluation study estimated total benefits of PRs.3.27 billion ($32.7 million equivalent) per annum income form project mangrove plantation starting from year 2016.

847 baseline surveys and village development plans were prepared and implemented.

Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

1. Environmentally sound coastal zone medium-term development, management, and conservation plan implemented by CDA

2. Effective community-driven mechanisms for community planning and household income increases established

3. Transparent and accountable community-driven mechanisms for civil works and public services

in place

4. Sustainable community-managed income-generating mangrove stands, pond and/or raft fisheries, and shell fisheries established

5. Project management system operational

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

OUTPUT # 1

Consultants were recruited in April 2012. A 5-year and a 20-year coastal development plans were approved in June 2013 and PRs. 990.00 million ($9.94 million equivalent) were allocated in Y2013 for implementation of these plans.

957 training days' courses were organized for staff in different technical and management skills.

A geographic information system, laboratory and a flood monitoring system were established to provide geo-data on coastal areas, resources and floods.

A fisheries and water quality survey was undertaken and findings were approved by the Fisheries Department.

Training manual and modules were prepared for fisheries sector, and 1 upgrade training program was conducted for 102 District Fisheries staff in technical skills with 50 master trainers.

8,943 CBO members were trained in collective fisheries management and regulations. 2,363 of these were women (26%).

OUTP # 2

1,587 CBOs were formed representing 24,049 households of project area covering 847 villages and 40 Union Councils.

48, 368 community members were trained in income generation, environmental management skills, organizational management and leadership skills. 51% of these were women.

PRs.19.80 million (equivalent $0.21 million) in microcredit was disbursed by NRSP through 1,451 loans to 1,129 CO members. This includes Rs.13.57 million (equivalent of $0.150 million), disbursed to women beneficiaries (69% of total amount).

1,587 CBOs have micro-savings of Rs. 6.846 million ($0.74 million equivalent).

OUTPUT # 3

1,291 small-scale infrastructure (SSI) schemes were completed, benefitting 45,385 hhs.

115 SSI schemes were rehabilitated that were damaged in the floods.

In addition to project financed schemes, CBOs completed 606 schemes of Rs.178 million (equivalent $1.92 million) with other sources of funding and self-help.

168 district government-managed, medium-scale infrastructre (MSI) schemes were completed directly benefitting a population of 161,513.

43 MSI schemes that were constructed under the project and damaged in the floods were rehabilitated.

Of total 27,282 hhs in 847 participating villages, 24,048 hhs participated in CBOs (88%).

Project book system for civil works under SSI schemes was maintained after launching of this subcomponent in 2009

OUTPUT # 4

10, 250 ha of new mangrove forests were planted by Forest Department and 350 ha of infills were planted by CBOs through IUCN.

New world record of maximum mangrove planting in a day was set in June 2013.

2.937 million Saplings were raised to undertake plantations.

5 independent monitoring and evaluation reports were prepared, reporting highly successful level of mangrove survival and success.

2 forest base camps and 2 walkways were constructed.

Information and education campaign included 15 technical training events for CBOs, 7 environmental awareness raising events, 3 exposure visits for policy and project planners and media persons; 119 radio programs and 360 spot messages; distribution of 11, 376 fact sheets, stickers and other promotional materials; and establishment of a web-link.

30 crab and prawn ponds were established including 1 pilot and 2 replication ponds.

80 trial rafts were constructed including 20 pilot and 60 pilot/trial replications were completed.

Badin Hatchery was ungraded from freshwater to brackish water fisheries with a facility of producing seed of brackish water species of 6.0 million hatchlings. A training hall was constructed with capacity for 25 persons in brackish and freshwater fish farming serving government staff and farmers.

2 laboratories were constructed in Badin Hatchery and equipped with a facility of water, soil and nutritional testing, serving farmers and government. The lab will also be used for production of live food for feeding the hatchlings.

Breeding trails were conducted of 6 species of sea bass brooders oyster 3 batches of oyster brooders.

9 hatchery staff was trained in oyster and finfish breeding, 2 were trained in water quality analysis, and 7 staff were provided with overseas training in fisheries.

OUTPUT # 5

PMU and 2 DPIUs (one at District Thatta and one at Badin) were established and systems were in place.

Procurement Committee, Consultant Selection Committee and Staff Recruitment Committee. These committees remained fully functional during entire project period.

Grievance review mechanism was in place. A total of 48 cases were registered by the communities, which were resolved. Of the total, 39 cases pertained to SSI schemes, 4 to MSI schemes, 1 to CBO, and 4 were related to NRSP.

Project baseline study was carried and performance monitoring systems were established and have been generally efficient.

All staff positions generally remained filled after recruitment of staff. Of 5,408 revised person-months, 4,973 were utilized (89%). Women staff was provided with 240 person-months of employment (6 % of total).

Of total 9 contracts (3 firms, 2 NGOs and 4 individual consultants), 9 contracts were awarded (3 firms, 2 NGOs and 4 individual consultants) and successfully completed.

Geographical Location Talukas (sub-districts) include Ghorabari, Keti Bunder, Jati, Shah Bunder, Kharo Chan and Mirpur Sakro in Thatta District and Badin and SF Rahu (Golarchi) and Badin in Badin District.
Safeguard Categories
Environment B
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples C
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects

Category B. An initial environmental examination was undertaken covering the main subprojects, and an environmental assessment and review procedure report was also completed.

The Project design requires the EA not to undertake any subproject or activity, having significant potential of adverse evironmental impacts.

Involuntary Resettlement

No resettlement or land acquisition will be necessary. All small construction under the Project will be on Government land.

The government of Sindh will donate land for community development purposes, or cover the costs of land leases for

pilot economic and natural resource-based activities.

Indigenous Peoples

No indigenous people live in the project area, as per the definition in ADB's Policy on Indigenous Peoples. A class

system of hierarchy exists throughout the project area, based on caste and an exploitative production system. The Project

addresses development needs of deprived vulnerable groups, such as Mallah, Kohli, and Bheel.

Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design

Yes:

Stake-holders consultation workshops held during PPTA.

During Project Implementation

Yes:

Small-scale infrastructure schemes are identified by the communities, and implemented by the community organizations of the beneficiary areas.

Business Opportunities
Consulting Services

The Project will provide 250 person-months of specialized services of domestic consultants and 23 person-months of international consultants in both long-term and short-term appointments through both consulting firms and individual consultants for the following areas: (i) crab and prawn pond and bivalve/seaweed raft technology; (ii) financial management and external spot audits; (iii) aquaculture food systems and hatcheries technology; (iv) GIS technology; (v) fisheries biology; and (vi) standing water quality assessment. The community mobilization and small scale interventions contract provides an additional 3,024 person-months of professional field staff. Project management staff provides 2,208 person-months of services. All consulting services will be recruited in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants by Asian Development Bank and its Borrowers (April 2006 as amended from time to time). Two single source selection contracts will be used for (i) community organization and small scale initiatives; and (ii) training, information, community-Government facilitation, and monitoring of mangrove planing. An exception has been m,ade to allow a $500,000 selection by consultant qualificaiton for the fisheries and water quality survey, which is highly specialized and narrow in scope, and for which few consulting firms will be qualified.

The consulting services for community organization and small scale initiatives will be provided by the National Rural Support Program (NRSP), a national NGO. The Project will engage IUCN, as sole source, with a twelve year history of mangrove planting activities and applied research in Sindh, to support the matching of NRSP COs with the Forest Department resources and commitment to engage in community mangrove planting and management.

Procurement Goods, related services, and civil works will be procured in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines and, where appropriate, consistent with GoP rules on small works. Civil works contracts valued less than $1 million may be procured through national competitive bidding (NCB), limited international bidding (LIB), or shopping, as determined by the particular circumstances of the contract packages. The goods and equipment contracts will be procured using the LIB, NCB or Shopping procedure.
Responsible ADB Officer Ismat Raza
Responsible ADB Department Central and West Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Environment, Natural Resources & Agriculture Division, CWRD
Executing Agencies
Coastal Development AuthorityMr. Muhammad Umer Memonmr. memon.umer@gmail.comBungalow No. C-130, Clifton Block 2, Karachi, Pakistan
Timetable
Concept Clearance 18 Aug 2005
Fact Finding 22 May 2006 to 31 May 2006
MRM 24 Mar 2011
Approval 15 Jan 2007
Last Review Mission -
PDS Creation Date 23 Feb 2006
Last PDS Update 01 Oct 2013

Loan 2310-PAK

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
15 Jan 2007 07 Dec 2007 27 Feb 2008 30 Jun 2013 - 30 Jan 2014
Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 40.01 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 36.00 15 Jan 2007 29.83 0.00 100%
Counterpart 4.01 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.00 15 Jan 2007 29.83 0.00 100%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory - Satisfactory

Evaluation Documents

See also: Independent Evaluation

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