Output 1. (a) The Multicountry Secretariat (MSEC) was staff by experienced consultants who performed well and in line with their Terms of Reference. MSEC provided training and support to Staff of the five National Secretariats (NSEC). (b) The five NSECs were staffed by competent professionals who performed well in being the technical secretariats for the respective Governments through the NCCs (National Coordination Councils) on land and water issues. The selection of the staff and particularly the head, was based on their administrative capabilities and experience as well as networks in Government and the civil administration was very appropriate except in Tajikistan where an academic was the head which led to poor Tajikistan NSEC performance. (c) The CACILM NCC in each CAC performed well. (d) The CACILM Steering Committee, as the governing body with membership of senior representatives of each of KAZ, KGZ,TAJ, TKM and UZB and the development partners conducted 4 meetings , reviewed the progress of CACILM, provided guidance on the planning and implementation of CACILM activities. Project monitoring and evaluation system were designed and implemented.
Output 2. NPFs were prepared in each of the five CACs with the assistance of their respective NSEC and oversight of MSEC. These are the guides for the implementation of SLM activities for the 10-year duration of CACILM. The NPFs were prepared well and have been very useful and been updated recently. The NPF has taken into consideration country specific as well as broader contexts that includes natural as well as anthropogenic causes for land degradation and has come up with prioritized programs of projects and technical assistance.
Output 3. (i) Land degradation baseline information established; (ii) Compilation of all available information on land degradation (iii) Determined methodology for establishing baseline information which is a combination of field survey, remote sensing, and expert opinion; (iv) baseline on land degradation has now been established using coarse and mid-resolution satellite imageries combined with ground data. This baseline includes socio-economic data (such as demographic, livestock, crop yield, pastureland biomass, etc) and detailed (250m, some are at 30m) spatial characterization of land degradation in terms of: 1.) land cover (over 90% overall accuracy for 21 classes); 2). Land Productivity: irrigated and rainfed cropland, and pastureland. 3). Vegetation/crop development in terms of 8 phenological features derived from bi-weekly MODIS NDVI time series of 2008;
4). Grazing gradients and degraded areas of pasture/rangeland; 5). Irrigated croplands - area and rate of land abandonment for selected irrigated areas at rayon level derived from Landsat images, cropping patterns and dominant crops for all irrigated
Output 4. The Sustainable Land Management-Research was designed and implemented in the 5 CACs. (i) Research Prospectus developed; (ii) Research covering rainfed and irrigated agriculture, mountain areas and rangeland/pastures -12 research sites (KAZ, KGZ, TAJ, TKM, UZB)- sustainable land management options were tested:
(a) Laser assisted land leveling, irrigation with plastic chutes and conjunctive use of drainage and irrigation water were tested and showed to increase productivity by 15-25% in Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan;
(b) Raised-bed seeding improved seed germination rates, halved (wheat and rice) seeding rates, reduced water use by 10% and allowed for diversifying the cropping geometry in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan
(c) Intercropping of cotton and legumes, maize with legumes, or sainfoin with barley proved highly profitable for farmers in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan
(d) Planting with standing stubble, mulch, residues on sloped land, terraces reduced soil erosion, increased soil moisture content on topsoil;
(e) Rangeland productivity and fodder availability could be increased by planting salt tolerable fodder crops such as Alfalfa, Sudan grass, titicale, sorghum, and licorice;
(f) Saxual and other halophyte species are highly suitable for rangeland
(iii) Results demonstrated that adoption of improved technologies of soil and water management could enhance productivity, resulting in higher rural incomes and household food security, contribute to the conservation of natural resources and the sustainability of agricultural production
(iv) Using GIS-based similarity analyses, environments similar to SLMR project sites could be identified for potentially out scaling of developed technologies in the next Phase
Output 5. The SLM-Knowledge Management system was designed and implemented. (i) Published Central Asia Atlas of Natural Resources that showcase the beauty and rich natural resources of Central Asia , an eye opener to those not so familiar to the Region; (ii) Prepared Report on Economic Analysis of Sustainable Land Management Options for Central Asia which provided analysis of use of fertilizer in irrigated crop production; minimum tillage in irrigated and rainfed production; migratory vs. secondary grazing and improved supplemental feeding of livestocks using feed blocks. The study recommends; (a) expanding investments in applied research and demonstration activities related to sustainable land and water management in a wide range of contexts to identify what works where; (b) Identify domains in which land and water management options are privately and socially profitable and the key constraints inhibiting adoption of these options in these contexts; (c) Identify and avoid promoting socially unprofitable land and water management options, and one-size-fits-all approaches to technology development, dissemination and promotion; (d) CACILM website operational; (e)CACILM Information materials disseminated in 5 CACs