India: Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 1

Sovereign Project | 40156-023 Status: Approved

Summary

ADB is helping India protect coastline affected by severe erosion. The project will reduce coastal erosion and instability in the western coastal states of Goa, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. It will focus on solutions that protect the coastal environment, as well as support private sector and community involvement in protection and management activities.

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Project Name Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 1
Project Number 40156-023
Country India
Project Status Approved
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Loan
Source of Funding / Amount
Loan 2679-IND: MFF - Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program - Tranche 1
Ordinary capital resources US$ 51.56 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Governance and capacity development
Sector / Subsector

Agriculture, natural resources and rural development - Water-based natural resources management

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Some gender elements
Description

The investment program will address immediate coastal protection needs and coastal instability using environmentally and socially appropriate solutions, with a focus on softer options such as artificial reefs, beach nourishments, and dune management in the states of Goa, Karnataka, and Maharashtra. It will also develop institutional capacities to meet the long-term needs of sustainable coastal protection and management, and support initiatives to increase the participation of the private sector and communities in coastal protection and management.

The impact of the investment program will be improved income and reduced poverty of the coastal communities in the subproject areas of the coastal states of Goa, Karnataka, and Maharashtra.

The outcome of the investment program will be protected and managed shorelines in the three states , meeting the needs of stakeholders and protecting the environment

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Coastal erosion is responsible for loss of land, houses, infrastructure, and business opportunities; and poses a high risk to human well-being, economic development, and ecological integrity. Every year, 400 hectares of land, 75,000 hectares of crop areas, and 34,000 residential houses and/or industrial establishments are lost or damaged by coastal erosion. The impact will be much more extensive and widespread in the coming years, as the coastline is increasingly subject to a wide range of economic developments, many of which create conflicts and pressures on the already disturbed natural coastal environments. The rural poor coastal communities are the most vulnerable to the impacts of erosion and poor coastal management. Many of the rapidly growing Indian urban areas are also vulnerable to coastal erosion; Mumbai, for example, incurs a cost of about $2.5 million per km on capital works alone to protect some of its prime waterfront property.

The coastal protection strategy in India aims at protecting the land and overall economic growth. Protecting the beach and the environment are relatively new concepts. The most frequently applied methods for coastal protection have been through the use of hard structures, such as seawalls or groins. Long-term plans to manage coastal erosion are available. However, resource constraints result in the measures being undertaken to target the more vulnerable sections of the coasts and as local emergency measures. Such interventions provide mostly land protection. Seawalls and groins continue to be preferred measures though they do not necessarily address the root cause of the problem. As the pressure on the coastal zone keeps expanding because of human-induced activities as well as relative sea level rise, there is an urgent need to find sustainable solutions for coastal protection.

Continuing coastal erosion worldwide is leading to the development and installation of innovative techniques for effective and unobtrusive shoreline and near shore control. There are increasing examples of replacement or modification of traditional hard rock protection with softer options such as beach nourishments, dune management, or artificial reefs. The investment program is designed to facilitate the transition to softer solutions, with a focus on environmentally appropriate and sustainable solutions.

The benefits of coastal projection to coastal economies are enormous. Interventions to prevent coastal erosion and protect beaches and adjoining land will benefit port operators and users, fisherfolk, tourism operators, beach users, farmers, and other property owners and local communities living near to or depending on the coast. In addition, the introduction and development of new technologies have lower environmental and social impacts than rock walls, which are the traditional solution to coastal erosion problems in India. When solutions include the construction of artificial reefs, there are benefits for beaches, land and property behind beaches, tourism, and artisanal fisheries since reefs provide a beneficial habitat for fish and other marine species. The introduction of these new technologies for coastal protection leads to solutions that not only protect the coastline from erosion but enhance income-generating opportunities for communities living near the affected areas.

Impact Improved income and reduced poverty of the coastal communities in the subproject areas of two coastal states
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Protected and managed shorelines in the two states meeting the needs of stakeholders and the environment
Progress Toward Outcome

The project design and management consultants (PMDC) for both Karnataka and Maharashtra components have been fielded and mobilized by Jan 2012 after about one year delay compared with the original implementation plan. They actively participated during the inception mission where implementation strategy, schedule and related activities and ADB procedures were discussed. PMUs for both Karnataka and Maharashtra have been established and are now fully operational although staffing is yet to be completed mainly in Maharashtra. The Program Steering Committee (PSC) have likewise been established by both the states of Karnataka and Maharashtra.

Procurement and implementation of ICB Package for Ullal, Karnataka was delayed due to a conflict of interest finding during the first bidding (tender floated in April 2011). A re-tendering of the same package with tender modifications was therefore done on Dec 2011 but was later cancelled because of technical/design issues. The design issue was discussed thoroughly during the inception mission, various options considered and a revised target of floating tender by June 2012, and contract award by Dec 2012 was discussed. Due to delay in finalization of revised design for reefs and breakwaters and its approval by the government tenders for two ICB works Construction of two off-shore reefs at Ullal; and rehabilitation of breakwaters at Ullal were floated on 16 August 2013 and 23 September 2013 respectively. Contract for rehabilitation of breakwaters was awarded in July 2014. Due to very high varaition between estimated and quoted cost the reef tender was rejected and rebidded on 9 May 2014. Reef contract was finally awarded in November 2014.

As to the ICB procurement of works for Mirya Bay, Maharashtra, the contract had already been awarded and is proceeding with some minor modifications to adjust the lessons learned from other reefs. The works is ongoing at site.

PMDC in Karnataka started activities related to coastal planning (preparation of state shoreline plans) and identify through that process sub-project to be considered for tranche 2 of the program. The approval of tranche 2 is planned in 2016.

A Mid-term Review (MTR) Mission was fielded during 12-22 June 2013. Based on the work progress the schedule for completion of Project was assessed, that the Project would require additional 24 months for completion of remaining works particularly in Karnataka. During MTR the projections were revised and received confirmation from both the EAs.

Further, a review Missions were fielded in Jan 2014 and March 2015 to record the implementation progress and to assess extension of the loan closing date. Based on request received from the government and EAs loan closing date has been extended by 30 months from 31 December 2014 to 30 June 2017.

Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

1. Sustainable plans and management for shorelines developed - (i) Participatory shoreline management plans to meet the long term needs for shoreline management for 2 state coastlines prepared and endorsed; (ii) coastal management information system, to support planning and management established; (iii) project management system established and operational, and supbrojects for future tranches planned and designed.

2. Coastal Erosion and Instability Reduced - (i) coastal erosion and instability reduced; (ii) community and private sector engaged in coastal erosion and instability reduction

3. Enhanced capacity for integrated shoreline planning and development - (i) Enchanced capacity for districts and states to plan, design, and implement shoreline protection and management projects; (ii) Enhanced capacity for state/district agencies, local experts/agencies, local bodies and stakeholders to provide specialist support for planning, modelling, design, checking and review for coastal protection and management; (iii) beaches are managed and maintained by the communities and stakeholders; (iv) SEAs formally mandated to coordinate all coastal protection and management programs

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

" In Karnataka SMP procedures and 2 SMP plan (for Dakshin Kannada (DK) and Udupi districts) out of 3 districts prepared and approved by PSC. SMP for Uttara Kannada prepared and further consultations process ongoing.

" In Maharashtra Draft SMP procedures (updated) prepared. Pilot plan for one (Sindhudurg) district out of 6 coastal districts prepared and for remaining districts under preparation.

Under establishment in both states.

Karnataka - Basic CMIS has been developed in excel format and operational CMIS is expected to set up by June 2015.

Maharashtra- CMIS has been developed and uploaded on MMB website. PMU has received clearance from other departments for disclosing the data on the web.

Staff are being trained to manage and maintain the system

PMU established for both the states but yet to be fully staffed mainly in Maharashtra. Regular trainings are ongoing.

Facility administration manual fully operational.

PMDC mobilized in both the states in January 2012. However PMDC-M terminated the contract effective 28 November 2013 due to some issues. Meanwhile MMB has called for EOI for new PMDC financed from State's budget.

Tranche 2 projects selection and pre-feasibility study ongoing in both states.

In Karnataka feasibility reports of 5 subprojects submitted to CWC for TAC approval.

In Maharashtra prefeasibility studies are yet to be fully taken up.

Tranche is expected to be negotiated in Q1 2016 for Karnataka and in Q3 2016 for Maharashtra.

Project is under implementation stage.

In Karnataka contracts for construction of inshore berms (4 nos.) awarded in Feb 2013, for rehabilitation of breakwaters awarded in July 2014 and for reef awarded in November 2014 to protect about 8 km of coast line. Work has stated at site for all 3 works.

In Maharashtra contract for construction of reef (1 no.) at Mirya bay to protect about 2km of eroded beach awarded in Oct 2011. As of May 2015, 48% of work completed.

Civil works yet to be completed. However consultations undertaken with stakeholders for increased involvement in coastal planning and management.

Consultations for establishment of SMOs ongoing in both states. In Maharashtra first SMO formed at Mirya Bay site.

Opportunities for few non-port related PPP activities are being explored.

Yet to be established. Consultation process under process.

GOK issued order for setting up CIMU in Karnataka on 21 Feb 2014 with 26 posts. CIMU is has been established vide GO dated 21 May 2015.

In Maharashtra, CIMU formed at head quarter level under chairmanship of CEO, MMB and 10 members from PMU and MMB staff.

Not yet due.

Karnataka- SMP procedures and 2 SMP plan (for Dakshin Kannada (DK) and Udupi districts) out of 3 districts prepared and approved by PSC. SMP for Uttara Kannada prepared and further consultations process ongoing.

Maharashtra- Draft SMP procedures (updated) prepared. Pilot plan for one (Sindhudurg) district out of 6 coastal districts prepared and for remaining districts under preparation.

Training plans and modules developed in both states which are being implemented.

Training of staff is ongoing, about 60 staffs provided training in preparation of SMP, understanding coastal processes, construction management, PPMS, CIMU roles and responsibilities and ADB procurement procedures.

Technical committee established in Karnataka for review and approval of design of coastal infrastructure.

Consultations for establishment of SMOs ongoing in both states. In Maharashtra first SMO formed at Mirya Bay site. In Karnataka Two SMOs (One each at Bengre and Ullal), proposed, Bengre SMO registered and Ullal yet to be registered.

Consultations for establishment of SMOs ongoing in both states. In Maharashtra first SMO formed at Mirya Bay site. In Karnataka Two SMOs (One each at Bengre and Ullal), proposed, Bengre SMO registered and Ullal yet to be registered.

Not yet due formal approval will be required once shoreline management procedures have been tested and plans successfully developed.

Shoreline policy will be finalized after approval of SMPs for all districts which are under preparation.

Notification of policy will be taken up after approval of shoreline planning and management policy.

Geographical Location Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Goa,
Safeguard Categories
Environment A
Involuntary Resettlement C
Indigenous Peoples C
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects Project still at initial stage and construction started for all major civil works packages. ADB fielded mission in January 2015 to review safeguard aspects. PMU and contractors have taken/initiated actions on the recommendations and suggestions made by mission in respect of statutory environmental compliance, implementation of EMMPs, environmental documentation and reporting, testing of environmental parameters etc.
Involuntary Resettlement ADB fielded mission in January 2015 to review safeguard aspects. PMU confirmed that none of the sub-projects had any issues related to the land acquisition and livelihood. The Mission did not come across any issue of significance.
Indigenous Peoples ADB fielded mission in January 2015 to review safeguard aspects. The PMU also confirmed that the proposed sub-projects did not impact indigenous peoples. The Mission did not come across any issue of significance.
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design

Participatory shoreline management plans (SMPs)

- Karnataka- SMP procedures and pilot SMP plan for DK district reviewed and approved by the PSC on 31 July 2013. SMP for Udupi district approved by PSC in Feb 2014 while SMP for Uttar Kannada submitted by PMDC-K to PMU on 3 June 2014. Further consultations in UK district are being arranged.

Maharashtra- As per suggestion of PSC on 24 September 2012, based on feedback from two stakeholder meetings conducted in July 2012 and March 2013 draft SMP procedures updated and submitted for approval of PSC in July 2013. PMDC-M has started SMP for 6 coastal districts and submitted pilot plan for Sindhudurg district for approval of PSC in Nov 2013. The plans will also identify potential economic development opportunities in coastal areas.

During Project Implementation

Output 2 comprises (i) reducing coastal erosion and instability using environmentally and socially appropriate solutions, and (ii) community and private sector engagement in coastal erosion and instability reduction.

1. Reducing coastal erosion, salinity and instability. Coastal erosion, salinity and instability will be reduced through economically viable protection works, using environmentally and socially appropriate solutions. Key areas of other coastal protection interventions include (i) navigation inlets and training of river and drain mouths; (ii) natural protection through the development and planting of dunes, and planting of mangrove or other trees for protection or shelter; and (iii) coastal management, including water quality, dredging, and reclamation.

2. Community and private sector engagement. The key components will be (i) training provided to local communities in shoreline management and income-generating activities, and (ii) new initiatives toward income generation of local communities. The states will take steps toward encouraging private sector investments in coastal protection and management, including putting in place enabling policies and guidelines for private sector participation in coastal protection and management as feasible.

Output 3 includes (i) enhanced capacity within districts and states to design and implement projects; (ii) enhanced capacity of local experts and agencies, and government institutes; (iii) improved capacity of communities and stakeholders to manage and maintain beaches; and (iv) mandated SEAs to coordinate coastal infrastructure projects. Such capacity enhancement is crucial to realize the policy and institutional actions of the investment program road map.

1. Enhanced capacity within districts and states. Capacity at district and state levels are being enhanced to prepare and implement participatory SMPs. CIMUs are being established and shoreline management plans are being prepared for all coastal districts and will be updated at 5 yearly intervals. SMPs will form the basis of long-term shoreline protection and management.

2. Enhanced capacity of local experts and agencies and government institutes. The capacity of local experts and agencies, local bodies, and stakeholders is being enhanced to provide specialist support for planning, modeling, design, checking, and review for coastal protection and management.

3. Improved capacity of communities and stakeholders. The mandates and capacities of communities and stakeholders will be improved to manage and maintain the beaches. Locally based community stakeholders and beneficiaries will support project coordination and monitoring during implementation, and management and maintenance of the beaches.

4. Mandated state executing agencies. The states will take all necessary steps to empower the SEAs to coordinate all coastal management programs. Towards this, the capacity of the SEAs will be enhanced. Establishment of a CIMU within the SEAs will support the coordination of the management information system.

Business Opportunities
Consulting Services Recruitment of Project monitoring and design consultants (PMDC) for Karnataka and Maharashtra were awarded in December 2011.
Procurement

Procurement Maharashtra - Contract for construction of one multipurpose geo-textile reef at Mirya Beach has been awarded in October 2011.

For Karnataka - One contract for construction of 4 inshore berms at Ullal has been awarded in Feb 2013.

Contract for rehabilitation of breakwaters at Ullal awarded in July 2014 and construction submerged reefs has been rebidded and is at technical bid evaluation stage.

Responsible ADB Officer Raghavendra Naduvinamani
Responsible ADB Department South Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division India Resident Mission
Executing Agencies
Maharashtra Maritime Board
CEOMMB@BOM3.VSNL.NET.IN
Chambers,3rd flr., Ramjibhai Kamani Marg
Ballard Estate, Mumbai-400 001, India
Maharashtra, India
Ports and Inland Waterways Department
OLDPORTMNG@BSNL.IN
Government of Karnataka
Old Mangalore Port, Mangalore
Karnataka, India
Timetable
Concept Clearance 22 Sep 2009
Fact Finding 27 Sep 2009 to 14 Oct 2009
MRM 06 Mar 2007
Approval 06 Oct 2010
Last Review Mission -
PDS Creation Date 15 Feb 2010
Last PDS Update 08 Sep 2015

Loan 2679-IND

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
06 Oct 2010 17 Aug 2011 28 Nov 2011 31 Dec 2014 30 Jun 2017 -
Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 51.56 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 51.56 06 Oct 2010 34.29 0.00 67%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.00 06 Oct 2010 16.46 0.00 32%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory Satisfactory - Satisfactory

Safeguard Documents

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Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

Evaluation Documents

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Related Publications

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