The subject multi-tranche financing facility (MFF) was approved by ADB on 29 September 2010 for an amount of $250.0 million to be implemented over a period of 9 years. The first periodic financing request (PFR1) was approved by ADB on 6 October 2010 for a total amount of $51.5 million including $41.0 million for the State of Karnataka and $10.5 million for the State of Maharashtra. The Loan agreement for the first tranche, L2679-IND: Sustainable Coastal Protection and Management Investment Program (SCPMIP) was signed by Department of Economic Affairs on 17 August 2011 and the project was declared effective on 28 November 2011. The loan closing date for physical implementation is 31 December 2016 and 30 June 2017 for withdrawal from the loan account. The Department of Public Works, Ports and Inland Water Transport Department is the State Executing Agency for the Project.
The investment program aims to address immediate coastal protection needs and coastal instability using environmentally and socially appropriate solutions, with a focus on softer options such as artificial reefs, beach nourishments, and dune management in the states of Karnataka, and Maharashtra.
The SCPMIP is designed to address immediate coastal protection needs and coastal instability using environmentally and socially appropriate solutions in the states of Karnataka, and Maharashtra. It will also develop institutional capacities to meet the long-term needs of sustainable coastal protection and management, and support initiatives to increase the participation of the private sector and communities in coastal protection and management. The selected subprojects are suffering from the impacts of severe coastal erosion. The introduction of new technologies for coastal protection leads to solutions that not only protect the coastline from erosion but enhance income-generating opportunities for communities living near the affected areas. The Climate-Resilient Coastal Protection and Management Project (CRCPMP) which started in April 2015 has been designed as Technical Assistance Project (TA) to complement the SCPMIP in the two focal states of Maharashtra and Karnataka. The TA is being implemented through ADB and financed by the Global Environmental Facility. The TA objectives are to strengthen the resilience of the Indian coast, coastal infrastructure and communities to the adverse impacts of climate change through agreed strategies, and effective mainstreaming of climate change considerations into coastal protection and management. The CRCPMP will work closely with the SCPMIP in Karnataka and Maharashtra with the specific objectives of (i) assessing the impacts of climate change on the coast of India; (ii) preparing guidelines for adaptation measures to ensure climate resilience in coastal protection and coastal infrastructure; (iii) provide specific recommendations for climate change adaptation for shoreline planning and design of sub projects for the two focal states of Maharashtra and Karnataka based on the above guidelines; and (iv) provide training to coastal states including training of trainers in the adaptation guidelines.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
Coastal erosion is responsible for loss of land, houses, infrastructure, and business opportunities; and poses a high risk to human well-being, economic development, and ecological integrity. Every year, 400 hectares of land, 75,000 hectares of crop areas, and 34,000 residential houses and/or industrial establishments are lost or damaged by coastal erosion. The impact will be much more extensive and widespread in the coming years, as the coastline is increasingly subject to a wide range of economic developments, many of which create conflicts and pressures on the already disturbed natural coastal environments. The rural poor coastal communities are the most vulnerable to the impacts of erosion and poor coastal management. Many of the rapidly growing Indian urban areas are also vulnerable to coastal erosion; Mumbai, for example, incurs a cost of about $2.5 million per km on capital works alone to protect some of its prime waterfront property.
The coastal protection strategy in India aims at protecting the land and overall economic growth. Protecting the beach and the environment are relatively new concepts. The most frequently applied methods for coastal protection have been through the use of hard structures, such as seawalls or groins. Long-term plans to manage coastal erosion are available. However, resource constraints result in the measures being undertaken to target the more vulnerable sections of the coasts and as local emergency measures. Such interventions provide mostly land protection. Seawalls and groins continue to be preferred measures though they do not necessarily address the root cause of the problem. As the pressure on the coastal zone keeps expanding because of human-induced activities as well as relative sea level rise, there is an urgent need to find sustainable solutions for coastal protection.
Continuing coastal erosion worldwide is leading to the development and installation of innovative techniques for effective and unobtrusive shoreline and near shore control. There are increasing examples of replacement or modification of traditional hard rock protection with softer options such as beach nourishments, dune management, or artificial reefs. The investment program is designed to facilitate the transition to softer solutions, with a focus on environmentally appropriate and sustainable solutions.
The benefits of coastal projection to coastal economies are enormous. Interventions to prevent coastal erosion and protect beaches and adjoining land will benefit port operators and users, fisherfolk, tourism operators, beach users, farmers, and other property owners and local communities living near to or depending on the coast. In addition, the introduction and development of new technologies have lower environmental and social impacts than rock walls, which are the traditional solution to coastal erosion problems in India. When solutions include the construction of artificial reefs, there are benefits for beaches, land and property behind beaches, tourism, and artisanal fisheries since reefs provide a beneficial habitat for fish and other marine species. The introduction of these new technologies for coastal protection leads to solutions that not only protect the coastline from erosion but enhance income-generating opportunities for communities living near the affected areas.