40190-013: Greater Mekong Subregion Flood and Drought Risk Management and Mitigation Project (CAM)

Project Data Sheet (PDS): Details


Description

The project will support the Government of Cambodia as it undertakes structural and nonstructural measures to prepare for and manage disaster risks linked to floods and droughts. Project interventions will (i) enhance the regional data, information, and knowledge base for the management of floods and droughts; (ii) upgrade or develop water management infrastructure; and (iii) prepare communities to manage disasters such as floods and droughts, and adapt to climate change. Improved drought management and irrigation water structures in Cambodia will benefit farmers on about 16,000 hectares (ha) of agricultural lands, and at least 10,000 people will benefit from improved flood management.

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

The Mekong River is a major influence on the lives of the people in Cambodia. Annual floods are a source of livelihood and sustenance, but extreme flood events and droughts cause widespread hardship. The costs to the countries of the Lower Mekong basin (LMB), in terms of loss of life and damage to infrastructure by floods and economic losses from both flood and drought events are significant. In Cambodia, between 1987 and 2007, 15 flood events resulted in over 1,150 deaths, disrupted the lives of over nine million persons, and when combined with losses from five drought events, caused over $465 million in damage to structures and crops. Although the annual average losses are relatively low, floods and drought events cause episodic losses as illustrated by Typhoon Ketsana in September 2009 which resulted in $132 million losses in Cambodia. Flood damage and associated losses were estimated to range from 0.30 to 0.45% of gross domestic product in 2009 in teh lower Mekong basin countries. There is a growing need for improved community preparedness to manage increasingly frequent and severe climatic extremes. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency of extreme flood events. While drought events do not result directly in deaths or structural damage, the disruption to lives and livelihoods, and the economic loss of agricultural production is substantial and limits the ability of rural communities to avoid poverty. These weather extremes illustrate the growing need for improving community preparedness to manage increasingly frequent disaster risks. Updating of infrastructure design standards will contribute to reducing the risks in Cambodia. While many of the nonstructural problems of data, warning systems and coordination of agencies are generic to LMB countries, problems related to physical structures, including canals, drains, control structures, are site specific. Flood and drought risk management as well as building communities resilience are identified as priorities in the national strategic development plans, sector strategies and national climate change adaptation plans. The proposed investment is one of the flagship programs of the 2002 Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Economic Cooperation Program Strategic Framework. Country agriculture and natural resources (ANR) sector assessments have confirmed drought and flood (extreme weather) events as key constraints to economies of the project countries and as contributing factors to persistent poverty in areas affected. Consequently, the proposed Project has two foci: (i) subregional activities to strengthen regional cooperation and integration (RCI) with regard to water resources management in general and flood/drought management in particular, and (ii) in country investments which combine structural and non-structural investments. Together, these will address the key subsector constraint of insufficient disaster preparedness of countries and communities to manage and mitigate the potential impacts of climate extremes.

Impact

Reduced economic losses resulting from flood and droughts

Project Outcome

Description of Outcome

Improved capacity and preparedness to manage and mitigate the impacts of flood and drought events

Implementation Progress

Description of Project Outputs

1. Regional coordination for management of flood and drought events strengthened 2. Water management infrastructure upgraded 3. Capacity for community based F&D management enhanced 4. Effective project implementation

Safeguard Categories

Environment: B
Involuntary Resettlement: A
Indigenous Peoples: C

Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects

Environmental Aspect
All identified adverse impacts resulting from the location, design, construction, and operation of the water management infrastructure are expected to be small to moderate and can be mitigated. Further updating of the environmental management plan will be undertaken before the commencement of site-specific construction activities.

Involuntary Resettlement
About 792 households (3,960 people) will be affected, including about 384 households (1,920 people) severely affected by potentially losing more than 10% of their productive land and/or productive assets. The total land take is estimated at 277.51 ha. A resettlement plan has been endorsed by the government and disclosed on ADB s website. The government has shown a commitment to managing social risks, but institutional capacity building is still necessary and is included in the project.

Indigenous Peoples
No indigenous people maintaining distinct cultural identities or separate cultural traditions were found to reside in the project area.

Stakeholder Participation and Consultation

During Project Design
Stakeholder consultations were conducted during the Project preparation, including during resettlement plan preparations and socio economic surveys in all areas covered by the Project District governments and officials of the communes, representatives of Women s Unions, Youth Organizations and potential affected people participated in various consultations. Focus group discussions with women were also conducted. Project Information Booklets written in the local languages were distributed and explained to the participants during those meetings. During inventory of losses the potential Affected Peoples were consulted on their initial preferences for resettlement and informed of the compensation and entitlement.

During Project Implementation
Consultation and participatory design of interventions and processes will commence starting from the preparation and implementation of land acquisition and resettlement plans towards the technical design and implementation of subprojects, in collaboration with displaced persons and stakeholders. Consultation will also be conducted during the process of updating the resettlement planning documents and participatory monitoring tools will be used throughout the project period. Community based disaster risk management actions will be supported in parallel to each infrastrucuture investment to ensure maximum ownership and understanding of the investments in each community. Careful communications and participatory approaches will be used extensively to facilitate the develop of the capacity of each community to prepare for and recover from flood and drought events, and to manage the sustainable operation and maintenance of the infrastruture developed through the proiect.



Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

Timetable

Concept Clearance
05 May 2011

Fact-finding
28 Mar 2011 to 31 May 2011

Management Review Meeting
06 Jul 2012

Board Approval
12 Dec 2012

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