Poverty Impact. Basic facilities and key infrastructure must be restored if the affected communities are to recover from the effects of the 2007 floods and cyclone following the immediate relief support provided by the Government, UN agencies, and bilateral development partners. The Project will benefit the residents, especially the poor, in the disaster-affected areas by offsetting the food grain and inputs shortfall for effective restoration of livelihood and income. The poor will benefit from restored rural and urban infrastructure, and social services. By rehabilitating vital public and community infrastructure, the Project will help restore essential economic and social activities disrupted by the floods and cyclone. The repair of roads, bridges, and improvement of transport infrastructure will restore basic access and services to health and educational facilities. Timesavings will facilitate business and nonfarm employment. The greater access to markets for cash crops, vegetables, livestock, and employment; as well as the decline in the price of agricultural inputs will contribute to poverty reduction by accelerating growth in poor people's per capita income and assets. The flood control and irrigation measures will protect people exposed to risk of inundation from future flooding and raise agricultural output. Improved municipal infrastructure will improve health conditions particularly for slum dwellers with better water supply and sanitation, and create greater access to employment opportunities. The Project will benefit the entire population of the selected subproject area including women, men, children, and indigenous people. The Project will ensure participation of affected people including indigenous peoples, if any, in selection and implementation of the subprojects. The rehabilitation and construction of flood and cyclone shelters and provision of latrines will help communities, especially the poor, during floods and cyclones.
Employment Generation. The Project will provide significant employment opportunities for skilled and unskilled labor during implementation. It will create employment opportunities for the poor in the project areas, generating about 14 million person-days of skilled and unskilled labor employment, of which about 20% will be for local destitute women ensuring equal wage for work of equal value. The poverty reduction aspects will be enhanced by encouraging contractors to engage local workers, including women, in project areas; and by using labor-contracting societies for small earthworks, providing work for poor women in the project areas.
The proposed Project aims to rehabilitate disaster-damaged facilities and infrastructure so as to restore critical social and economic activities. As such the positive environmental impacts are substantial. Short-term minor negative impacts may be associated with the rehabilitation activities (material transportation, earthwork, operation of tar boiler/hot mix plant, operation and maintenance of construction machinery, etc.), which can be moderated with the adoption of appropriate mitigative measures. Generic mitigation measures and monitoring plans are proposed based on the type of rehabilitation works and preliminary environmental assessment conducted during the field visit. During implementation, detailed site-specific environmental and social impacts, mitigation measures, and monitoring plan will be assessed and developed for subprojects and included in the contract documents.
Air Quality and Noise. Handling of construction materials, equipment movement, and other construction activities may generate dust and noise. The impact will be temporary and restricted within the closed vicinity of the construction activities. All vehicles, equipment, and machinery used for construction will be regularly maintained. Water will be sprayed frequently on dry surfaces, earth mixing sites, and loose material and spoil soil storage areas. Vehicle delivering loose and fine material will be covered. Road embankments will be covered with vegetation. Hot mix plant/tar boilers will be located at least 500 meters away and will be located at the downwind direction with respect to human settlement. Vehicle and equipment will be fitted with silencers and maintained regularly. Diesel generators will be fitted with acoustic enclosures. Work will be restricted to daytime, reducing nuisance from noise.
Soil and Land. The rehabilitation activities under the Project may have adverse impacts on soil and land. Impacts may include loss of productive area, loss of productive soils due to borrowing of earth, soil contamination due to disposal of spoil soils, spread of waste during drains repair, and loss of rice fields within or adjacent to the road right-of-way due to clearance/material extraction/dumping of cut spoil. Selection of borrow areas will be based on topography, land use, and drainage pattern. The top soil will be preserved and reused. The extraction of construction materials from riverbeds will be minimized. Fuel and lubricants will be stored on paved surfaces, away from rivers and streams. Slope protection measures including vegetation will be adopted. Appropriate waste handling and management procedures will be developed and implemented. Septic tanks (adequately designed) will be provided at the construction camps.
Flora and Fauna. Transport of construction material by river may damage charland vegetation and animal habitat. Surface runoff and improper handling of construction waste may affect the water quality of rivers and canals, which may impact aquatic fauna. Charland will be protected from any damage due to cutting or dredging for ship movement for material transportation through river. Precautions will be taken to prevent surface runoff or construction waste finding its way to water bodies.
River Hydrology and Morphology. Reconstruction of embankments and protective works may have morphological impacts on river flow and resulting change in the shape of the riverbed and river course. It may also result in drainage congestion. Proper construction planning will be done to avoid drainage congestion. Embankments, protective work, and road design will consider factors such as highest flood level, river hydrology and morphology, river/channel siltation, drainage pattern, topography, seismicity, and channel encroachment by the population.
Economic Impacts. The Project will have various beneficial impacts due to early restoration of basic infrastructure facilities especially in rural areas. However, a civil work may cause some temporary damage to crops and agricultural land due to poor handling of solid wastes. All precautions will be taken to ensure that no damage occurs to crops and agriculture land due to construction activities. In unavoidable circumstances, the project implementing agency will follow the Government and ADB policies for compensation and involuntary resettlement. During implementation, local villagers will be recruited as much as possible to provide income opportunities and to minimize wastes and pollution generated from work camps.