|Progress Toward Outcome
||The TA has accomplished the expected outcome on an expanded scale. The policy study has played a catalytic role in promoting policy innovation to regulate and promote beneficial sludge utilization and wastewater reuse. In consistence with the recommendations of the policy study, MOHURD and the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) have promulgated national technical guidelines for urban sewage sludge treatment and disposal in March 2011. The Twelfth Five-Year Plan for the construction of urban wastewater facilities (draft) introduces the concept of technical routes for sludge management, promotes low-carbon approaches to sludge management, and sets the national goal of 70% and 50% sludge treatment by 2015 for large and small cities respectively. Guidelines related to wastewater reuse are currently being developed and expected to be released in 2012/2013. Knowledge sharing was also promoted through an international study tour, participation at workshops and conferences (3), as well as international (1) and national (2) publications. TA findings also influenced the development of strategic plans in the two pilot cities, including Beijing's 12th Five-Year Plan for urban wastewater treatment, sewage, and reclaimed water (draft) and Shanghai's urban sewage sludge treatment and disposal master plan (2009-2020).
|Description of Project Outputs
A study report that provides advice on: (i) pricing and planning policies; (ii) stakeholder coordination strategies; and (iii) regulatory guidance.
A designed operational model for pilot-testing operations in the selected case-study cities to expand wastewater reuse and sludge utilization mechanisms.
A study report that summarizing operational and performance data from pilot testing in selected cities and providing recommendations for future application of tariffs for wastewater reuse and selection of appropriate technology for energy recovery from sewage sludge.
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)
All planned TA activities were completed. The TA activity started with the conduct of extensive international best practice reviews (IBPR) in relation to urban wastewater reuse and sludge management. The findings of these IBPR were compared with PRC policies and practices. A more detailed assessment was carried out in the two pilot cities (Beijing and Shanghai). Particular attention was also paid to relevant ADB project experience in the PRC, most notably the Wuhan Urban Environmental Improvement Project. Based on the comparative analysis, the Consultant drafted a comprehensive policy framework and supporting guidelines for wastewater reuse and sludge management in the PRC. These were discussed with the pilot cities and MOHURD in the framework of TA inception (July 2009) and interim (May 2010) review workshops, and presented at three national conferences. Feedback provided during the consultation process, as well the observations made during an international study tour in Europe (August 2010) were used to review and finalize the policy framework. The TA final report was approved by ADB in May 2011.
The TA has accomplished the expected outputs on an expanded scale. Outputs of the policy study are summarized in the final report submitted by the Consultant, which is well received by MOHURD and the pilot cities. The TA's final report produced a sound analysis on (i) international best practice of urban wastewater reuse and beneficial sludge utilization; (ii) current PRC policies, practices, and trends in urban wastewater reuse and sludge management; and (iii) technical routes for sludge treatment and utilization, including their carbon footprint.
The culmination of these analyses was the drafting of a comprehensive policy framework that includes (i) recommendations on a reclaimed water utilization management policy framework, (ii) recommendations on a sludge reuse management policy framework, (iii) draft guidelines for the selection of sludge technical routes, (iv) a carbon footprint assessment framework for sludge treatment and disposal, (v) draft urban wastewater reuse safety regulations, and (vi) guidance on the development of marketing and public relations strategies.
Based on the findings and conclusions of the TA final report, three publications were produced including (i) a scientific article entitled Comparative Analysis of Sewage Sludge Management Options for Chinese Cities presented at the International Water Association International Conference on Cities of the Future Xi'an: Technologies for Integrated Urban Water Management (September 2011); (ii) an article entitled Promoting Sustainable Sewage Sludge Management in the PRC published in the International and the Chinese edition of Water21, the magazine of the International Water Association; and (iii) an ADB publication entitled Towards Beneficial Sewage Sludge Utilization in the PRC , which will be published in February 2012.