Kiribati: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (formerly Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Project)

Sovereign Project | 43072-013

Summary

South Tarawa is formed by a series of islets located along the southern rim of Tarawa Atoll with a total land area of just 15.76 square kilometers (km2). High population density, poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitation infrastructure have contributed to a high prevalence of waterborne disease among the local population and degradation of the natural environment. The proposed Project will support improvements to the health of communities in South Tarawa. This will be achieved through enhanced community engagement in, and public awareness of, hygiene and sanitation; rehabilitation and upgrading of sanitation infrastructure; capacity development to improve sector planning, and operation and maintenance of urban water supply and sanitation services; and the creation of a sanitation maintenance fund to ensure adequate financing for sanitation infrastructure maintenance.

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Procurement Documents


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Project Name South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (formerly Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Project)
Project Number 43072-013
Country Kiribati
Project Status Approved
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Grant
Loan
Source of Funding / Amount
Grant 0263-KIR: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project
Australian Grant US$ 13.95 million
Loan 2795-KIR: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project
Asian Development Fund US$ 7.56 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Governance and capacity development
Partnerships
Sector / Subsector Water and other urban infrastructure and services - Urban sewerage
Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Effective gender mainstreaming
Description South Tarawa is formed by a series of islets located along the southern rim of Tarawa Atoll with a total land area of just 15.76 square kilometers (km2). High population density, poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitation infrastructure have contributed to a high prevalence of waterborne disease among the local population and degradation of the natural environment. The proposed Project will support improvements to the health of communities in South Tarawa. This will be achieved through enhanced community engagement in, and public awareness of, hygiene and sanitation; rehabilitation and upgrading of sanitation infrastructure; capacity development to improve sector planning, and operation and maintenance of urban water supply and sanitation services; and the creation of a sanitation maintenance fund to ensure adequate financing for sanitation infrastructure maintenance. A project preparatory technical assistance (TA) is preparing the Project including the development of the Water Supply and Sanitation Roadmap 2011-2030 and associated investment plan, and required due diligence assessments.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Almost 50% of Kiribati's population of 103,466 lives in South Tarawa, the country's political and economic center. South Tarawa's main urban areas of Bairiki, Betio and Bikenibeu have a combined population of 24,171. Rapid urbanization has resulted in an annual average population growth rate of 4.4% since 2005. The average population density in South Tarawa is 3,193 /km2, and it is as high as 8,990/km2 in the most densely settled urban areas. Population pressures combined with uncontrolled urban settlement have resulted in overcrowding that has put stress on critical public infrastructure and the natural environment.

The public sewerage system operated by the Public Utilities Board (PUB) services around one quarter of South Tarawa's population. To conserve limited freshwater supplies, a saltwater reticulation system supplies seawater for toilet flushing. The traditional practice of defecating in the open is widespread and is reportedly engaged in by almost half of South Tarawa's population. Leakage of effluent from both pit latrines and poorly constructed and maintained septic tanks contributes to contamination of groundwater.

The health impacts of poor sanitation infrastructure in South Tarawa are evident. Inadequate residential sanitation infrastructure is a key contributor to contamination of freshwater and near-shore areas of the lagoon. Inadequate handwashing and consumption of untreated water and contaminated shellfish have resulted in widespread gastrointestinal disease. Typhoid outbreaks occurred in South Tarawa in 2009 and 2010. The infant mortality rate in Kiribati of 46 per 1,000 live births is among the highest in the Pacific. This can be attributed in part to infantile diarrhea, which is directly linked to inadequate sanitation and poor public hygiene.

Weak capacity to manage existing sanitation assets and operations among PUB and Ministry of Public Works and Utilities (MPWU) staff has contributed to chronic underperformance of the sewerage system. Sewerage services are provided free of charge to customers. Operations and maintenance (O&M) activities are funded through government transfers, while periodic capital investments in system rehabilitation and upgrading have been externally financed by development partners. The current situation has resulted in low sustainability. In the absence of adequate resources, no preventive or routine maintenance is carried out, and instead, maintenance is deferred until the system fails. This situation imposes high costs on both the government and the local population in terms of lost productivity, health expenditures, and degradation of freshwater resources and coastal areas.

The problem of inadequate sanitation infrastructure is compounded by limited public awareness of the links between sanitation, hygiene, and health. This has resulted in low demand and willingness to pay for improved sanitation facilities. Households do not perceive the full benefits associated with improved sewerage services, nor the large negative externalities linked to behavior such as beach defecation and not washing one's hands. A widespread and sustained public awareness and education campaign specifically targeting groups such as women and children is required to bring about improved hygiene behavior and to create demand for improved sanitation.

The proposed project is consistent with the Kiribati Development Plan 2008-2011, which commits to improving health outcomes, strengthening governance in the provision of public services, and investing in social and economic infrastructure. The Project is also included in the Kiribati Country Partnership Strategy 2010-2014 which aims to reduce poverty and promote economic opportunity by improving the delivery of sustainable infrastructure services. The proposed Project supports the country's National Sanitation Policy; National Water Resources Policy; and the Government of Kiribati's Water Supply, Sanitation, and Solid Waste Management Program for South Tarawa that was developed in 2010 with assistance from the Pacific Infrastructure Advisory Centre. This program is intended to support a whole-of-sector approach and promote effective coordination of development partner-supported activities in the sector.

Impact Improved health of South Tarawa's population.
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome South Tarawa's urban male and female population has equal access to improved sanitation.
Progress Toward Outcome Project's is satisfactorily being implemented and ensuring the outcome is at the forefront. Community engagement campaign and sewer network infrastructure improvement works are running in parallel and project management is performing well.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

1. Priority sanitation sector infrastructure investments are undertaken by MPWU and PUB

2. Sanitation and hygiene practices among South Tarawa's population are improved.

3. PUB has the capacity to efficiently and effectively deliver sanitation services

4. MPWU provides effective regulatory oversight of water and sewerage service delivery

5. Project management services within MPWU and PUB ensure efficient and effective project implementation

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

Sewerage and saltwater network rehabilitation contract is currently in progress. The works programme shows physical completion by April 2016.

The ocean outfalls is pending a concept design review and marine survey.

Community engagement initiatives are on-going to support sanitation marketing and awareness on improving practices.

The project has assisted PUB in preparing the sanitation maintenance fund and the sewerage tariff to ensure cost recovery and adequate operation and maintenance costs are incorporated. Further consultations are planned for May 2015 regarding these proposals.

MPWU providing ongoing regulatory support to PUB.

Project management and implementation services have improved with recruitment of new Team Leader, and a Technical Advisor.

A sanitation engineer is being recruited to manage the on-site waste water management systems pilot programme.

Geographical Location
Safeguard Categories
Environment B
Involuntary Resettlement B
Indigenous Peoples C
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design
During Project Implementation
Business Opportunities
Consulting Services

Project Management and Implementaiton Consultants commenced services on 16 July 2012.

Recruitment of Sanitation and Gender Community Mobilizers posted on 8 March 2013.

Procurement Detailed design and preparation of bid documents for the core sub-projects under preparation.
Responsible ADB Officer Jude Kohlhase
Responsible ADB Department Pacific Department
Responsible ADB Division Pacific Subregional Office in Suva, Fiji
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Finance and Economic DevelopmentNEPO-POLICY@YAHOO.COMP.O. Box 67
Bairiki, Tarawa
Kiribati
Timetable
Concept Clearance 07 Mar 2011
Fact Finding 09 Jun 2011 to 16 Jun 2011
MRM 29 Jun 2011
Approval 17 Oct 2011
Last Review Mission -
PDS Creation Date 16 Apr 2010
Last PDS Update 19 Mar 2015

Grant 0263-KIR

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
17 Oct 2011 03 May 2012 01 Jun 2012 31 Dec 2019 - -
Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 14.92 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 17 Oct 2011 0.00 9.41 67%
Counterpart 0.97 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 13.95 17 Oct 2011 0.00 5.20 37%

Grant 0387-KIR

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
14 May 2014 26 Sep 2014 19 Nov 2014 30 Jun 2019 - -
Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 0.00 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 14 May 2014 0.00 0.19 30%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.00 14 May 2014 0.00 0.06 11%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating - - - - - Satisfactory

Loan 2795-KIR

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
17 Oct 2011 03 May 2012 01 Jun 2012 31 Dec 2019 - -
Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 7.56 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 7.56 17 Oct 2011 2.87 0.00 44%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.00 17 Oct 2011 1.07 0.00 16%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating - - - - - Satisfactory

Safeguard Documents

See also: Safeguards
Title Document Type Document Date
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Semiannual Safeguards Monitoring Report (July-December 2014) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Feb 2015
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Semiannual Safeguards Monitoring Report (January-June 2014) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Oct 2014
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Betio, Bairiki, and Bikenibeu Sewer System Subproject Initial Environmental Examination Initial Environmental Examination Aug 2014
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Betio, Bairiki, and Bikenibeu Sewer System Subproject Resettlement Plan Resettlement Plans Aug 2014
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental Assessment and Review Framework (as of Board approval) Environmental Assessment and Review Framework Sep 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Initial Environmental Examination (as of Board approval) Environmental Assessment and Measures Sep 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Environmental Assessment and Review Framework Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Ocean Outfalls Subproject Initial Environmental Examination Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Sewer System Rehabilitation Subproject Initial Environmental Examination Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Resettlement Framework (as of Board approval) Resettlement Planning Documents Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Resettlement Framework Resettlement Frameworks Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Resettlement Plan (as of Board approval) Resettlement Planning Documents Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Resettlement Plan Resettlement Plans Jun 2011

Evaluation Documents

See also: Independent Evaluation

No documents found.


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