Kiribati: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (formerly Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Project)

Sovereign Project | 43072-013 Status: Active

Summary

ADB is helping Kiribati improve public health in South Tarawa, a series of islets along the southern rim of Tarawa Atoll. The project will improve sanitation infrastructure, sewerage and maintenance capacity, and public hygiene. It will help reduce waterborne diseases, including diarrhea in babies, which contribute to Kiribati having one of the highest infant mortality rates in the Pacific.

Latest Project Documents

Consulting Notices See also: CMS

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Procurement Notices See also: Operational Procurement

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Procurement Documents


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Project Name South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (formerly Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Project)
Project Number 43072-013
Country Kiribati
Project Status Active
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Grant
Loan
Source of Funding / Amount
Grant 0263-KIR: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project
Government of Australia US$ 13.95 million
Loan 2795-KIR: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project
Asian Development Fund US$ 7.56 million
Grant 0387-KIR: South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project (formerly Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Project)
Multi-Donor Trust Fund under the Water Financing Partnership Facility US$ 610,000.00
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Governance and capacity development
Partnerships
Sector / Subsector

Water and other urban infrastructure and services - Urban sewerage

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Effective gender mainstreaming
Description South Tarawa is formed by a series of islets located along the southern rim of Tarawa Atoll with a total land area of just 15.76 square kilometers (km2). High population density, poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitation infrastructure have contributed to a high prevalence of waterborne disease among the local population and degradation of the natural environment. The proposed Project will support improvements to the health of communities in South Tarawa. This will be achieved through enhanced community engagement in, and public awareness of, hygiene and sanitation; rehabilitation and upgrading of sanitation infrastructure; capacity development to improve sector planning, and operation and maintenance of urban water supply and sanitation services; and the creation of a sanitation maintenance fund to ensure adequate financing for sanitation infrastructure maintenance.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Almost 50% of Kiribati's population of 103,466 lives in South Tarawa, the country's political and economic center. South Tarawa's main urban areas of Bairiki, Betio and Bikenibeu have a combined population of 24,171. Rapid urbanization has resulted in an annual average population growth rate of 4.4% since 2005. The average population density in South Tarawa is 3,193 /km2, and it is as high as 8,990/km2 in the most densely settled urban areas. Population pressures combined with uncontrolled urban settlement have resulted in overcrowding that has put stress on critical public infrastructure and the natural environment.

The public sewerage system operated by the Public Utilities Board (PUB) services around one quarter of South Tarawa's population. To conserve limited freshwater supplies, a saltwater reticulation system supplies seawater for toilet flushing. The traditional practice of defecating in the open is widespread and is reportedly engaged in by almost half of South Tarawa's population. Leakage of effluent from both pit latrines and poorly constructed and maintained septic tanks contributes to contamination of groundwater.

The health impacts of poor sanitation infrastructure in South Tarawa are evident. Inadequate residential sanitation infrastructure is a key contributor to contamination of freshwater and near-shore areas of the lagoon. Inadequate handwashing and consumption of untreated water and contaminated shellfish have resulted in widespread gastrointestinal disease. Typhoid outbreaks occurred in South Tarawa in 2009 and 2010. The infant mortality rate in Kiribati of 46 per 1,000 live births is among the highest in the Pacific. This can be attributed in part to infantile diarrhea, which is directly linked to inadequate sanitation and poor public hygiene.

Weak capacity to manage existing sanitation assets and operations among PUB and Ministry of Public Works and Utilities (MPWU) staff has contributed to chronic under performance of the sewerage system. Sewerage services are provided free of charge to customers. Operations and maintenance (O&M) activities are funded through government transfers, while periodic capital investments in system rehabilitation and upgrading have been externally financed by development partners. The current situation has resulted in low sustainability. In the absence of adequate resources, no preventive or routine maintenance is carried out, and instead, maintenance is deferred until the system fails. This situation imposes high costs on both the government and the local population in terms of lost productivity, health expenditures, and degradation of freshwater resources and coastal areas.

The problem of inadequate sanitation infrastructure is compounded by limited public awareness of the links between sanitation, hygiene, and health. This has resulted in low demand and willingness to pay for improved sanitation facilities. Households do not perceive the full benefits associated with improved sewerage services, nor the large negative externalities linked to behavior such as beach defecation and not washing one's hands. A widespread and sustained public awareness and education campaign specifically targeting groups such as women and children is required to bring about improved hygiene behavior and to create demand for improved sanitation.

The proposed project is consistent with the Kiribati Development Plan 2012-2015, which commits to improving health outcomes, strengthening governance in the provision of public services, and investing in social and economic infrastructure. The Project is also included in the Kiribati Country Partnership Strategy 2010-2014 which aims to reduce poverty and promote economic opportunity by improving the delivery of sustainable infrastructure services. The proposed Project supports the country's National Sanitation Policy; National Water Resources Policy; and the Government of Kiribati's Water Supply, Sanitation, and Solid Waste Management Program for South Tarawa that was developed in 2010 with assistance from the Pacific Infrastructure Advisory Centre. This program is intended to support a whole-of-sector approach and promote effective coordination of development partner-supported activities in the sector.

Impact Improved health of South Tarawa's population.

Project Outcome

Description of Outcome South Tarawa's urban male and female population has equal access to improved sanitation.
Progress Toward Outcome Project's is satisfactorily being implemented and ensuring the outcome is at the forefront. Community engagement campaign and sewer network infrastructure improvement works are running in parallel and project management is performing well. The ocean outfall civil works package is being tendered with a closing date of 20 April 2016. Contract award is expected in May/June 2016.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

1. Priority sanitation sector infrastructure investments are undertaken by MPWU and PUB

2. Sanitation and hygiene practices among South Tarawa's population are improved.

3. PUB has the capacity to efficiently and effectively deliver sanitation services

4. MPWU provides effective regulatory oversight of water and sewerage service delivery

5. Project management services within MPWU and PUB ensure efficient and effective project implementation

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

Contract awarded on 31 August 2014 for the rehabilitation of the saltwater and sewer system is ongoing. The contractor has progressed cleaning of the saltwater system in Betio and has completed 9.3 km (90%) of the 10.2 km section. Other works include installation of 76 hydrants, and 54 saltwater valves.

The IA is considering alternatives to the sludge digestor and milliscreen approaches that have been assessed as complex, requiring high levels of maintenance, and related costs in adopting the proposed systems. The IA has indicated its desire for a more practical solution that reduces in operational complexities and enhances the long term reliability of the sewerage system and without any sacrifice in performance.

The on-site sanitation works have been tendered and are currently under evaluation.

The community engagement specialist is currently reviewing progress to date and re-formulating the remaining engagement and gender activities. This will also include the mid-term survey activity.

The project management arrangements have been satisfactory. The EA's fiduciary services unit has presented no issues; and the IA consulting firm is being monitored by the international Technical Advisor to facilitate efficient and effective project management on behalf of the IA.

Geographical Location

Safeguard Categories

Environment B
Involuntary Resettlement B
Indigenous Peoples C

Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects

Environmental Aspects ICB01 Environment safeguard systems are in place with the updated IEE disclosed in August 2014. The BEIA and Contractor's EMP are also approved and compliance thereof is satisfactory as monitored through the up to date semi-annual safeguards reports. The BEIA for ICB02 was approved and disclosed on the ADB website in December 2015.
Involuntary Resettlement The updated RP was approved and disclosed in August 2014. The consultants Social Safeguard specialist issued a full report on the status of IR issues relevant to the project in April 2015 "South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Social Safeguards Training". Progress is monitored closely through semi-annual safeguard reports. The recent report for July - December 2015 has been disclosed on ADB's website.
Indigenous Peoples The project is classified as category C. The people of South Tarawa are from a single ethnic group. There are no customary, cultural, economic, social, or political institutions that set South Tarawa apart from the rest of Kiribati society.
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design
During Project Implementation

Business Opportunities

Consulting Services

Project Management and Implementaiton Consultants commenced services on 16 July 2012.

Recruitment of Sanitation and Gender Community Mobilizers posted on 8 March 2013.

Procurement Detailed design and preparation of bid documents for the core sub-projects under preparation.

Responsible Staff

Responsible ADB Officer Jude Kohlhase
Responsible ADB Department Pacific Department
Responsible ADB Division Pacific Subregional Office in Suva, Fiji
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
NEPO-POLICY@YAHOO.COM
P.O. Box 67
Bairiki, Tarawa
Kiribati

Timetable

Concept Clearance 07 Mar 2011
Fact Finding 09 Jun 2011 to 16 Jun 2011
MRM 29 Jun 2011
Approval -
Last Review Mission -
PDS Creation Date 16 Apr 2010
Last PDS Update 30 Mar 2016

Grant 0263-KIR

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
17 Oct 2011 03 May 2012 01 Jun 2012 31 Dec 2019 - -
Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 14.92 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 17 Oct 2011 0.00 9.97 71%
Counterpart 0.97 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 13.95 17 Oct 2011 0.00 7.19 52%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating - - - Satisfactory - Satisfactory

Grant 0387-KIR

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
14 May 2014 26 Sep 2014 19 Nov 2014 30 Jun 2019 - -
Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 0.61 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 14 May 2014 0.00 0.19 31%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.61 14 May 2014 0.00 0.10 16%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating - - - Satisfactory - Satisfactory

Loan 2795-KIR

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
17 Oct 2011 03 May 2012 01 Jun 2012 31 Dec 2019 - -
Financing Plan Loan Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 7.56 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 7.56 17 Oct 2011 2.53 0.00 39%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 0.00 17 Oct 2011 1.97 0.00 30%
Status of Covenants
Category Sector Safeguards Social Financial Economic Others
Rating - - - Satisfactory - Satisfactory

Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards

Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

Title Document Type Document Date
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental and Social Monitoring Report (July-December 2015) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Feb 2016
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Semiannual Safeguards Monitoring Report (January-June 2015) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Sep 2015
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project - Replacement of Three Sewage Outfall Pipe and Diffuser Assemblies: Basic Environmental Impact Assessment Initial Environmental Examination Sep 2015
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Semiannual Safeguards Monitoring Report (July-December 2014) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Feb 2015
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Semiannual Safeguards Monitoring Report (January-June 2014) Environmental and Social Monitoring Reports Oct 2014
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Betio, Bairiki, and Bikenibeu Sewer System Subproject Initial Environmental Examination Initial Environmental Examination Aug 2014
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Betio, Bairiki, and Bikenibeu Sewer System Subproject Resettlement Plan Resettlement Plans Aug 2014
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Environmental Assessment and Review Framework (as of Board approval) Environmental Assessment and Review Framework Sep 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Initial Environmental Examination (as of Board approval) Initial Environmental Examination Sep 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Environmental Assessment and Review Framework Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Ocean Outfalls Subproject Initial Environmental Examination Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Sewer System Rehabilitation Subproject Initial Environmental Examination Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Resettlement Framework (as of Board approval) Resettlement Frameworks Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Resettlement Framework Resettlement Frameworks Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project: Resettlement Plan (as of Board approval) Resettlement Plans Jun 2011
South Tarawa Sanitation Improvement Sector Project Resettlement Plan Resettlement Plans Jun 2011

Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

None currently available.

Related Publications

None currently available.


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