Output 1: Capabilities of national and local institutions strengthened in sustainable coastal and marine resources management
Regional and in-country training programs and workshops were conducted to strengthen national and local institutions, and including implementing NGO partners on: (i) integrated and ecosystem-based coastal and marine resources management, or integrated coastal management (ICM), ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM), marine protected areas management, and climate change adaptation; (iii) data collection; (iv) organizational reforms to address institutional capacity gaps; and (v) environmental and resource management law, including a review of policy, legal, and regulatory frameworks to institutionalize ICM and EBFM.
IUCN produced a draft Lessons Learning Framework for the environmental law component to guide the documentation of lessons learned and country case studies. The framework is based on what each country is already doing to capture lessons learned and systems that have been put in place. IUCN is working with local learning networks, such as Locally Managed Marine Areas in Fiji and Solomon Islands, and Learning and Training Network in PNG, to document their unique approaches and to share these with other countries. The framework has been refined and is currently being tested in Fiji.
Establishment of environmental law association was initiated in Timor-Leste and training materials on environmental law for the legal training center were developed. The Solomon Islands Environmental Law Association (SIELA) was revived through the formation of a task force to initiate the preparation of its strategic plan. The revival of the SIELA has led to a funding opportunity from the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund in the amount of $80,000 for two years. The Vanuatu Environmental Law Association has been formally registered and is currently formulating its strategic plan. The PNG ELA Working Group was formed and currently in the process of registration and formulating its strategic plan. IUCN conducted in-country awareness raising and capacity building training on international, regional, and national developments on topical environmental law; provided technical assistance to support the countries' environmental law and policy development, such as the development of protected areas policy and legislation in PNG and development of ICM in Fiji.
The project enabled the development and passage of the new Malaita Province Fisheries Ordinance (Bill) in Solomon Islands facilitated by WorldFish, Malaita Provincial Fisheries Division, and the Attorney General's Chambers in consultation with the NPMU and the CTI NCC. It also provided expertise and assistance in the development of environmental law and policy, including sustainable coastal and marine resource management, introduction of the national environmental policy for Vanuatu, law reforms for the protection of mangroves initiated by the Department of Environmental Protection and Conservation (DEPC) as a result of the recommendations made by IUCN in the review of laws and policies relating to mangroves, review of the draft PNG protected areas policy as requested by DEC, and development of publications on the regulatory and institutional frameworks on integrated coastal management for Fiji.
The project-supported activities in Vanuatu on sustainable financing are toward the development of an environment and climate change trust fund (ECT) to build and ensure support to DEPC's programs on environmental conservation and climate change adaptation. An ECT Administration Manual, which provides guidance on the various procedures, has been introduced and a draft ECT Bill developed to meet Vanuatu's policy needs and constraints. Key aspects of the design and draft Bill underwent several iterations to address issues raised while cognizant of international best practice.
Continuous support for in-country coordination activities was provided to strengthen the role of CTI NCCs or their equivalents (National Integrated Coastal Management in Fiji and National Advisory Board in Vanuatu) as platforms for ICM-related discussions, exchange of information, and improving coordination and identifying synergies.
Output 2: Coastal communities experienced in applying best practices in ecosystem-based management and climate change adaptation
Gathered secondary national and local data at the priority sites as inputs to area management planning and design of community interventions. The WorldFish Center (WFC) has mapped baseline data to assess climate change vulnerability in each country. Thirteen regional resource maps have been produced, showing estimates of reef areas vulnerable to coral bleaching, coastline length vulnerable to ocean acidification, land area vulnerable to submersion at 1 meter sea level rise, area of key marine habitats, and area of marine habitats under protection.
Subprojects in the priority sites are implemented by NGOs that demonstrate experiences on sustainable financing, mangrove rehabilitation, women's active involvement in locally managed marine areas, ecosystem-based approach to resource management, ridge-to-reef approach to resource management, community-based management of crown-of-thorns starfish, communication, education, and information awareness on marine protected areas (MPAs), and ICM planning-related activities. Marine conservation plans for Malaita and Isabel provinces in Solomon Islands are progressing. The project has enabled the designation of marine protected areas (MPAs) in Atauro and Batugade in Timor-Leste. Ministerial diplomas for their designation as MPAs have been approved by government. The involvement of communities through these NGOs ensures effective implementation of coastal management and climate change adaption practices. The ICM planning-related activities for Ra province in Fiji are ongoing.
Fiji: Ra Province is the focus of efforts to build on the lessons learned from past ICM attempts and to apply the Fiji Locally Managed Marine Area community-based management model. Efforts were done by the Department of Environment under the guidance of the National Integrated Coastal Management Committee. Planning and implementation of ICM in Ra Province were improved through the development of the Ra Province Integrated Coastal Resources Management Plan and capacity building of the village and district management committees. The plan incorporates traditional and contemporary approaches for resources management.
Papua New Guinea: Through the then Department of Environment and Conservation (now Conservation and Environment Protection Authority), efforts have been built on coastal management work in Kimbe Bay, with a focus on managing land-based threats and identifying livelihood opportunities through ecologically sustainable economic development. Support to ecosystem-based fisheries management was extended to Manus Island. The Marine Program National Learning and Training Network Sub-Working Group through the Pari Women's Development Association established a women's community engagement framework in the form of a Code of Good Practice. This was the first time this has been achieved in PNG and is seen as a benchmark for linking traditional and best practice coastal resources management.
Solomon Islands: The project introduced ICM and EBFM within an existing community-based program, with a focus on Malaita and Isabel provinces. Implementation has been shared between the Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology, and Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources. The board and committee members of the Mararo Community Based Organization were trained by the WorldFish Center on financial management. The project increased awareness of community action in managing coastal resources. The success of the intervention was shared with other communities, which eventually became engaged in managing their resources.
Timor-Leste: The National Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, has introduced ICM and EBFM around the islands of Atauro Island and Batugade. The project has legally established the MPA sites in Atauro and Batugade with the passage of their respective ministerial diplomas defining the boundaries, setting-up an aquatic natural reserve, and regulating their management. The selection of the MPAs is community driven and is designed to improve the local fish stocks through no-take fishing zones established and demarcated with marked buoys.
Vanuatu: The Department of Environment, Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, supported planning by coastal communities on ICM. The project focused on climate change adaptation and successfully established a climate change trust fund for Vanuatu.
On public awareness-related activities on ICM, the knowledge sharing website, http://www.ctknetwork.org supported by the project is now fully operational, and continues to provide public awareness-related activities on ICM, showcasing CTI-related news, knowledge products and events concerning the Coral Triangle Pacific countries and events as well as stories related to the project. The site serves as an information tool for the general public about the Coral Triangle, as a knowledge exchange tool, and as a learning platform for stakeholders in Coral Triangle Pacific countries. Subproject-specific activities on information, education and communication are helping to improve the awareness of key stakeholders, especially communities, on integrated resource management.
Output 3: Resilience of coastal ecosystems to climate change enhanced
The WorldFish Center has mapped baseline data to assess climate change vulnerability in each country. Thirteen regional resource maps have been produced, showing estimates of reef areas vulnerable to coral bleaching, coastline length vulnerable to ocean acidification, land area vulnerable to submersion at 1 meter sea level rise, area of key marine habitats, and area of marine habitats under protection.
Two studies have been completed. The study on Responding to Climate Change using an Adaptation Pathways and Decision-making Approach by WorldFish is to find ways of working with local and regional institutions to strengthen the capacity of stakeholders to assess climate change risks to coastal livelihoods and develop cost-effective planned responses to reduce these risks. A series of eight brochures was produced which together constitute a complete manual of methods for conducting a community-focused assessment of climate change. They illustrate the assessment activities in detail using Timor-Leste and Solomon Island as case studies. While these brochures are based on activities in Timor-Leste and Solomon Islands, community leaders, local NGOs, and regional and national government representatives in other Coral Triangle Pacific countries are expected to find them useful as community-based responses to climate change. Supplementing the eight brochures is an audio-visual production that describes stages of the approach: scoping, identifying options, evaluation, and planning implementation. Materials produced by the project have been made available via online portals and databases, such as Peskador.org, the Pacific Disaster Net, Asia-Pacific Adapt, and the Coral Triangle Initiative/Coral Triangle Knowledge Network. The extensive photographic and diagrammatic content of these brochures makes them very attractive for general readership and raising public awareness.
The study on Future Prospects and Adaptation Strategies for the Fisheries Sector under Climate Change in the Pacific Coral Triangle Countries by IFPRI, resulted in a policy brief and technical report using an application of IFPRI's modeling approach to food supply, demand, and price scenarios in case studies on Fiji, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, and Vanuatu. A set of 12 general conclusions was drawn up concerning the implications for food security in these countries. IFPRI also provided institutional strengthening through training events during country visits, in which trainees got hands-on experience in the modeling methodology. This was most effective in Fiji, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, where there were sufficient government staff with interest and abilities to use IFPRI's modeling approach and knowledge products.
To support the achievement of outputs (i) to (iii), the updating and costing of the national plans of action (NPOAs) of Papua New Guinea (PNG), Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste was included as a regional activity under the TA. The updating of the NPOAs is necessary to sustain the generation of financial resources to implement identified priorities of the countries, specifically on improving food security through climate change resilient measures for effective integrated coastal management. The exercise will enable project preparation and funding arrangements to proceed without loss of momentum, as well as contribute to the costing process which is the foundation for all future CTI budgeting and funding work. It will generate financial data and projections needed by national governments, by public and non-profit development and corporate partners to evaluate opportunities to participate in the funding of CTI projects at country and regional levels.
Output 4: Effective program management established by ADB and the participating governments
The basic staffing for the Regional Program Management Office (RPMO) with the mobilization of the Team Leader/Regional Program Manager, and NPMUs were carried out. Due to the high cost of operation in PNG, the physical establishment the RPMO has not been done to date.
FCG ANZDEC, as the PMC, continues to provide the in-country program management and implementation in the 5 countries, including (i) detailed work planning; (ii) coordinating demonstration activities; (iii) procurement of goods and services, including subcontracting service providers to implement subprojects and training activities; (iv) financial management; and (v) documentation and reporting. It also continues to engage international and national specialists as required to undertake various national and regional activities. NPMUs continue to provide in-country coordination and management overseeing and coordinating the implementation of program activities in the field. National and international specialists were mobilized to provide specialized services/expertise based on in-country and regional requirements.
The TCU set up within PARD is currently staffed by (i) an international project planning and coordination specialist to provide the necessary and timely support in managing TCU's operations including coordination and facilitation, and to assist in technical, administrative, and finance-related matters; (ii) a project analyst to monitor financial disbursements and contract compliance as well as provide coordination support to implement the project's overall work program; and (iii) a web communications team. The web team supports the TCU in developing information, education, and communication (IEC) products, including events, articles, tools, and videos, on coastal and marine resource management and in climate change adaptation relevant to Pacific Coral Triangle countries. Support staff services are also in place.
A monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework with monitoring and reporting tools to guide country activities was developed. NPMU staff have been trained in its use and application. The M&E activities to determine progress of the project against the DMF targets still need to be strengthened, including a more focused analysis and processing of collected data. While the subprojects have unique outputs and outcomes relevant to each country, these should be analyzed in the context of the overall objective of the project. Tracking the progress of project-supported activities is through quarterly progress reports and periodic updates on a subproject basis submitted by the PMC.
Access to project information and documents is through an online file-sharing account administered by the PMC. This serves as the repository of all reports and presentation materials. Access has been granted to all project partners and consultants interested to share or download project-related information.