Regional: Strengthening Coastal and Marine Resources Management in the Coral Triangle of the Pacific (Phase 2)

Sovereign Project | 43427-012 Status: Approved

Summary

The TA will help ensure food security for the population in Pacific CTI countries, resulting from the increased resilience of coastal and marine ecosystems. It will support the introduction of more effective management of coastal and marine resources, especially those associated with coral ecosystems, to build their resilience in a period of increased threats arising from human induced and climate change impacts.

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Project Name Strengthening Coastal and Marine Resources Management in the Coral Triangle of the Pacific (Phase 2)
Project Number 43427-012
Country Regional
Project Status Approved
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Technical Assistance
Source of Funding / Amount
TA 7753-REG: Strengthening Coastal and Marine Resources Management in the Coral Triangle of the Pacific (Phase 2)
Technical Assistance Special Fund US$ 1.15 million
Regional Cooperation and Integration Fund US$ 800,000.00
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Regional integration
Drivers of Change Governance and capacity development
Knowledge solutions
Partnerships
Private sector development
Sector / Subsector

Agriculture, natural resources and rural development - Water-based natural resources management

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming No gender elements
Description The TA will help ensure food security for the population in Pacific CTI countries, resulting from the increased resilience of coastal and marine ecosystems. It will support the introduction of more effective management of coastal and marine resources, especially those associated with coral ecosystems, to build their resilience in a period of increased threats arising from human induced and climate change impacts.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy The R-PATA responds to ADB's Pacific Region Environment Strategy at the local level by (i) providing support for the mainstreaming of environment issues within the wider government policy and strategy framework, (ii) supporting the provision of environmental services through urban and rural land use planning linked to water quality and water quantity management needs, and (iii) promoting a focus on delivering ICM management through community-based programs that are linked within a wider ecosystems management framework and with strong linkages to building diversified livelihoods, including coastal tourism. At the sub-national level, the R-PATA supports strengthening the management of marine and coastal resources through spatial planning, threat management, and eco-regional assessments to prioritize programs within an ICM framework. At the national level, the project links closely to the ADB strategy for improved environmental governance with institutional restructuring and strengthening, policy and legal development, and for building enhanced legal capability and transparency. The move towards national ICM or island-wide spatial planning is seen as a major step towards strengthening the mainstreaming of coastal ecosystem management needs into wider development planning. The R-PATA will also influence development planning and regional economic integration at the sub-regional level through linkages with the CTI Regional Secretariat. The R-PATA is closely aligned with the following approved or have been proposed TAs: (i) Regional Review of the Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia; (ii) Strengthening Coastal and Marine Resources Management in the CTI-Southeast Asia;(iii) Regional Connectivity in Infrastructure in Archipelagic Southeast Asia; and (iv) Enhancing Regional Cooperation and Knowledge Sharing to Support the CTI. Synergies across these TA projects will ensure appropriate support for the protection and conservation of the region's coral reef and associated ecosystems.
Impact Coastal and marine resources ensure sustainable food security for the population in the five Pacific countries.
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Increased resilience of coastal and marine ecosystems is attained in the five Pacific countries
Progress Toward Outcome

FCG ANZDEC, as the PMC, continues to provide the in-country program management and implementation in the 5 countries, including (i) detailed work planning; (ii) coordinating demonstration activities; (iii) procurement of goods and services, including subcontracting service providers to implement subprojects and training activities; (iv) financial management; and (v) documentation and reporting. It also continues to engage international and national specialists as required to undertake various national and regional activities. NPMUs continue to provide in-country coordination and management overseeing and coordinating the implementation of program activities in the field.

The TCU located within PARD is staffed by (i) a project planning and coordination specialist to provide the necessary and timely support in managing TCU's operations including coordination and facilitation, and to assist in technical, administrative, and finance-related matters; (ii) a project analyst to monitor financial disbursements and contract compliance as well as provide coordination support to implement the project's overall work program; and (iii) a web communications team. The web team supports the TCU in developing information, education, and communication (IEC) products, including events, articles, tools, and videos, on coastal and marine resource management and in climate change adaptation relevant to Pacific Coral Triangle countries posted in the Coral Triangle Knowledge Network (http://www.ctknetwork.org).

Developed and made available a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework with monitoring and reporting tools to guide country activities. NPMU staff have been trained in its use and application. However, the M&E activities need to be strengthened, including a more focused analysis and processing of collected data.

Access to project information and documents is through an online file-sharing account administered by the PMC. This serves as the repository of all reports and presentation materials. Access has been granted to all project partners and consultants interested to share or download project-related information.

Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

Capabilities of national and local institutions strengthened in sustainable coastal and marine resources management

Coastal communities experienced in applying best practices in ecosystem-based management and climate change adaptation

Resilience of coastal ecosystems to climate change enhanced

Effective program management established by ADB and the participating governments

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

Output 1: Capabilities of national and local institutions strengthened in sustainable coastal and marine resources management

Regional and in-country training programs and workshops were conducted to strengthen national and local institutions, and including implementing NGO partners on: (i) integrated and ecosystem-based coastal and marine resources management, or integrated coastal management (ICM), ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM), marine protected areas management, and climate change adaptation; (iii) data collection; (iv) organizational reforms to address institutional capacity gaps; and (v) environmental and resource management law, including a review of policy, legal, and regulatory frameworks to institutionalize ICM and EBFM.

IUCN produced a draft Lessons Learning Framework for the environmental law component to guide the documentation of lessons learned and country case studies. The framework is based on what each country is already doing to capture lessons learned and systems that have been put in place. IUCN is working with local learning networks, such as Locally Managed Marine Areas in Fiji and Solomon Islands, and Learning and Training Network in PNG, to document their unique approaches and to share these with other countries. The framework has been refined and is currently being tested in Fiji.

Establishment of environmental law association was initiated in Timor-Leste and training materials on environmental law for the legal training center were developed. The Solomon Islands Environmental Law Association (SIELA) was revived through the formation of a task force to initiate the preparation of its strategic plan. The revival of the SIELA has led to a funding opportunity from the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund in the amount of $80,000 for two years. The Vanuatu Environmental Law Association has been formally registered and is currently formulating its strategic plan. The PNG ELA Working Group was formed and currently in the process of registration and formulating its strategic plan. IUCN conducted in-country awareness raising and capacity building training on international, regional, and national developments on topical environmental law; provided technical assistance to support the countries' environmental law and policy development, such as the development of protected areas policy and legislation in PNG and development of ICM in Fiji.

The project enabled the development and passage of the new Malaita Province Fisheries Ordinance (Bill) in Solomon Islands facilitated by WorldFish, Malaita Provincial Fisheries Division, and the Attorney General's Chambers in consultation with the NPMU and the CTI NCC. It also provided expertise and assistance in the development of environmental law and policy, including sustainable coastal and marine resource management, introduction of the national environmental policy for Vanuatu, law reforms for the protection of mangroves initiated by the Department of Environmental Protection and Conservation (DEPC) as a result of the recommendations made by IUCN in the review of laws and policies relating to mangroves, review of the draft PNG protected areas policy as requested by DEC, and development of publications on the regulatory and institutional frameworks on integrated coastal management for Fiji.

The project-supported activities in Vanuatu on sustainable financing are toward the development of an environment and climate change trust fund (ECT) to build and ensure support to DEPC's programs on environmental conservation and climate change adaptation. An ECT Administration Manual, which provides guidance on the various procedures, has been introduced and a draft ECT Bill developed to meet Vanuatu's policy needs and constraints. Key aspects of the design and draft Bill underwent several iterations to address issues raised while cognizant of international best practice.

Continuous support for in-country coordination activities was provided to strengthen the role of CTI NCCs or their equivalents (National Integrated Coastal Management in Fiji and National Advisory Board in Vanuatu) as platforms for ICM-related discussions, exchange of information, and improving coordination and identifying synergies.

Output 2: Coastal communities experienced in applying best practices in ecosystem-based management and climate change adaptation

Gathered secondary national and local data at the priority sites as inputs to area management planning and design of community interventions. The WorldFish Center (WFC) has mapped baseline data to assess climate change vulnerability in each country. Thirteen regional resource maps have been produced, showing estimates of reef areas vulnerable to coral bleaching, coastline length vulnerable to ocean acidification, land area vulnerable to submersion at 1 meter sea level rise, area of key marine habitats, and area of marine habitats under protection.

Subprojects in the priority sites are implemented by NGOs that demonstrate experiences on sustainable financing, mangrove rehabilitation, women's active involvement in locally managed marine areas, ecosystem-based approach to resource management, ridge-to-reef approach to resource management, community-based management of crown-of-thorns starfish, communication, education, and information awareness on marine protected areas (MPAs), and ICM planning-related activities. Marine conservation plans for Malaita and Isabel provinces in Solomon Islands are progressing. The project has enabled the designation of marine protected areas (MPAs) in Atauro and Batugade in Timor-Leste. Ministerial diplomas for their designation as MPAs have been approved by government. The involvement of communities through these NGOs ensures effective implementation of coastal management and climate change adaption practices. The ICM planning-related activities for Ra province in Fiji are ongoing.

Fiji: Ra Province is the focus of efforts to build on the lessons learned from past ICM attempts and to apply the Fiji Locally Managed Marine Area community-based management model. Efforts were done by the Department of Environment under the guidance of the National Integrated Coastal Management Committee. Planning and implementation of ICM in Ra Province were improved through the development of the Ra Province Integrated Coastal Resources Management Plan and capacity building of the village and district management committees. The plan incorporates traditional and contemporary approaches for resources management.

Papua New Guinea: Through the then Department of Environment and Conservation (now Conservation and Environment Protection Authority), efforts have been built on coastal management work in Kimbe Bay, with a focus on managing land-based threats and identifying livelihood opportunities through ecologically sustainable economic development. Support to ecosystem-based fisheries management was extended to Manus Island. The Marine Program National Learning and Training Network Sub-Working Group through the Pari Women's Development Association established a women's community engagement framework in the form of a Code of Good Practice. This was the first time this has been achieved in PNG and is seen as a benchmark for linking traditional and best practice coastal resources management.

Solomon Islands: The project introduced ICM and EBFM within an existing community-based program, with a focus on Malaita and Isabel provinces. Implementation has been shared between the Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology, and Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources. The board and committee members of the Mararo Community Based Organization were trained by the WorldFish Center on financial management. The project increased awareness of community action in managing coastal resources. The success of the intervention was shared with other communities, which eventually became engaged in managing their resources.

Timor-Leste: The National Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, has introduced ICM and EBFM around the islands of Atauro Island and Batugade. The project has legally established the MPA sites in Atauro and Batugade with the passage of their respective ministerial diplomas defining the boundaries, setting-up an aquatic natural reserve, and regulating their management. The selection of the MPAs is community driven and is designed to improve the local fish stocks through no-take fishing zones established and demarcated with marked buoys.

Vanuatu: The Department of Environment, Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, supported planning by coastal communities on ICM. The project focused on climate change adaptation and successfully established a climate change trust fund for Vanuatu.

On public awareness-related activities on ICM, the knowledge sharing website, http://www.ctknetwork.org supported by the project is now fully operational, and continues to provide public awareness-related activities on ICM, showcasing CTI-related news, knowledge products and events concerning the Coral Triangle Pacific countries and events as well as stories related to the project. The site serves as an information tool for the general public about the Coral Triangle, as a knowledge exchange tool, and as a learning platform for stakeholders in Coral Triangle Pacific countries. Subproject-specific activities on information, education and communication are helping to improve the awareness of key stakeholders, especially communities, on integrated resource management.

Output 3: Resilience of coastal ecosystems to climate change enhanced

The WorldFish Center has mapped baseline data to assess climate change vulnerability in each country. Thirteen regional resource maps have been produced, showing estimates of reef areas vulnerable to coral bleaching, coastline length vulnerable to ocean acidification, land area vulnerable to submersion at 1 meter sea level rise, area of key marine habitats, and area of marine habitats under protection.

Two studies have been completed. The study on Responding to Climate Change using an Adaptation Pathways and Decision-making Approach by WorldFish is to find ways of working with local and regional institutions to strengthen the capacity of stakeholders to assess climate change risks to coastal livelihoods and develop cost-effective planned responses to reduce these risks. A series of eight brochures was produced which together constitute a complete manual of methods for conducting a community-focused assessment of climate change. They illustrate the assessment activities in detail using Timor-Leste and Solomon Island as case studies. While these brochures are based on activities in Timor-Leste and Solomon Islands, community leaders, local NGOs, and regional and national government representatives in other Coral Triangle Pacific countries are expected to find them useful as community-based responses to climate change. Supplementing the eight brochures is an audio-visual production that describes stages of the approach: scoping, identifying options, evaluation, and planning implementation. Materials produced by the project have been made available via online portals and databases, such as Peskador.org, the Pacific Disaster Net, Asia-Pacific Adapt, and the Coral Triangle Initiative/Coral Triangle Knowledge Network. The extensive photographic and diagrammatic content of these brochures makes them very attractive for general readership and raising public awareness.

The study on Future Prospects and Adaptation Strategies for the Fisheries Sector under Climate Change in the Pacific Coral Triangle Countries by IFPRI, resulted in a policy brief and technical report using an application of IFPRI's modeling approach to food supply, demand, and price scenarios in case studies on Fiji, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, and Vanuatu. A set of 12 general conclusions was drawn up concerning the implications for food security in these countries. IFPRI also provided institutional strengthening through training events during country visits, in which trainees got hands-on experience in the modeling methodology. This was most effective in Fiji, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, where there were sufficient government staff with interest and abilities to use IFPRI's modeling approach and knowledge products.

To support the achievement of outputs (i) to (iii), the updating and costing of the national plans of action (NPOAs) of Papua New Guinea (PNG), Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste was included as a regional activity under the TA. The updating of the NPOAs is necessary to sustain the generation of financial resources to implement identified priorities of the countries, specifically on improving food security through climate change resilient measures for effective integrated coastal management. The exercise will enable project preparation and funding arrangements to proceed without loss of momentum, as well as contribute to the costing process which is the foundation for all future CTI budgeting and funding work. It will generate financial data and projections needed by national governments, by public and non-profit development and corporate partners to evaluate opportunities to participate in the funding of CTI projects at country and regional levels.

Output 4: Effective program management established by ADB and the participating governments

The basic staffing for the Regional Program Management Office (RPMO) with the mobilization of the Team Leader/Regional Program Manager, and NPMUs were carried out. Due to the high cost of operation in PNG, the physical establishment the RPMO has not been done to date.

FCG ANZDEC, as the PMC, continues to provide the in-country program management and implementation in the 5 countries, including (i) detailed work planning; (ii) coordinating demonstration activities; (iii) procurement of goods and services, including subcontracting service providers to implement subprojects and training activities; (iv) financial management; and (v) documentation and reporting. It also continues to engage international and national specialists as required to undertake various national and regional activities. NPMUs continue to provide in-country coordination and management overseeing and coordinating the implementation of program activities in the field. National and international specialists were mobilized to provide specialized services/expertise based on in-country and regional requirements.

The TCU set up within PARD is currently staffed by (i) an international project planning and coordination specialist to provide the necessary and timely support in managing TCU's operations including coordination and facilitation, and to assist in technical, administrative, and finance-related matters; (ii) a project analyst to monitor financial disbursements and contract compliance as well as provide coordination support to implement the project's overall work program; and (iii) a web communications team. The web team supports the TCU in developing information, education, and communication (IEC) products, including events, articles, tools, and videos, on coastal and marine resource management and in climate change adaptation relevant to Pacific Coral Triangle countries. Support staff services are also in place.

A monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework with monitoring and reporting tools to guide country activities was developed. NPMU staff have been trained in its use and application. The M&E activities to determine progress of the project against the DMF targets still need to be strengthened, including a more focused analysis and processing of collected data. While the subprojects have unique outputs and outcomes relevant to each country, these should be analyzed in the context of the overall objective of the project. Tracking the progress of project-supported activities is through quarterly progress reports and periodic updates on a subproject basis submitted by the PMC.

Access to project information and documents is through an online file-sharing account administered by the PMC. This serves as the repository of all reports and presentation materials. Access has been granted to all project partners and consultants interested to share or download project-related information.

Geographical Location Fiji Islands, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Vanuatu
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design All five countries were consulted during project design phase.
During Project Implementation

Annual implementation review workshops were conducted in September 2012 and April 2013 at ADB headquarters to discuss project progress and issues/concerns requiring attention/solutions for consideration. Participants included Government representatives from focal ministries, all implementing partners, the national project management teams, collaborators and the TA coordination unit.

The identification and prioritization of activities continues to be in close coordination with the CTI National Coordinating Councils (NCCs) of PNG, Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste, the NICM of Fiji, and NAB in Vanuatu. This is to ensure that identified priorities are consistent with the CTI objectives and aligned with the respective countries' National Plans of Action (NPoAs). At the subproject level, community and stakeholders consultations were undertaken to directly engage their participation in the implementation of activities.

A mid-term review of the project was conducted in 2014 to assess the project and recommend measures to improve the implementation and achieve its overarching objective of ensuring food security. The review constituted country visits in the five Pacific countries and extensive consultations with key stakeholders. The MTR recommendations will inform and guide changes in the scope and implementation arrangements for the TA. The results of the MTR were shared during the Regional Planning Work Group meeting on 26 to 29 April 2015. The regional meeting also generated a list of pipeline projects consisting of 12 in-country and 2 regional subprojects and training activities for implementation under the TA.

The TA completion period was extended from 31 October 2015 to 31 December 2017. A change in implementation arrangement has been approved, that is, direct engagement of NGOs by ADB for subproject implementation instead of a PMC. A project director and monitoring and evaluation specialist will be recruited to strengthen the current TCU staff and given its expanded role in providing technical advice, monitoring and evaluation, and contract management with the directly engaged NGOs.

Business Opportunities
Consulting Services

The PMC recruited is to supply 91.5 person-months of international and 423 person-months of national consulting services to support in-country program management and implementation in the five Pacific countries. The firm was selected using QCBS evaluation (90:10) following ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants apart from demonstrating strong technical skills and proven program management experience.

The TCU established within ADB's Pacific Department has engaged an international program coordinator, international project planning and monitoring specialist, and national project planning and monitoring specialist on separate occasions. To date, the TCU consists of the international project planning and coordination specialist, project analyst, web developer, and web communications specialist.

In addition, 51 person-months of consultant inputs are to be provided by IUCN Oceania, the World Fish Center (WFC), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), all engaged on a single source selection basis to conduct special studies, research, and other selected activities related to climate change adaptation, environmental law and learning, and food security issues. IFPRI and WFC have completed their contracts on 31 October 2013 and 15 November 2014, respectively. IUCN's contract has been extended to 31 August 2015 from 30 April 2014.

Responsible ADB Officer Shigehiko Muramoto
Responsible ADB Department Pacific Department
Responsible ADB Division Transport, Energy and Natural Resources Division, PARD
Executing Agencies
Asian Development Bank
6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong
Metro Manila, Philippines
P.O. Box 789, 1099 Manila,
Philippines
Timetable
Concept Clearance 31 Mar 2010
Fact Finding 02 May 2010 to 14 Jul 2010
MRM -
Approval 14 Dec 2010
Last Review Mission -
PDS Creation Date 09 Apr 2010
Last PDS Update 28 Sep 2015

TA 7753-REG

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
14 Dec 2010 - 14 Dec 2010 31 Dec 2014 31 Dec 2017 -
Financing Plan/TA Utilization Cumulative Disbursements
ADB Cofinancing Counterpart Total Date Amount
Gov Beneficiaries Project Sponsor Others
1,950,000.00 0.00 3,000,000.00 0.00 0.00 450,000.00 5,400,000.00 14 Dec 2010 6,640,815.84

Safeguard Documents

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Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

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Evaluation Documents

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Related Publications

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