||Flood and Riverbank Erosion Risk Management Investment Program - Project 1
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount
|Loan 3138-BAN: Flood and Riverbank Erosion Risk Management Investment Program - Project 1|
|Asian Development Fund
||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change
||Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector
||Agriculture, natural resources and rural development
- Rural flood protection
- Rural water policy, institutional and capacity development
Water and other urban infrastructure and services
- Urban flood protection
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
|| Effective gender mainstreaming
||ADB is assisting the Government of Bangladesh to improve the livelihoods of people in the country's most flood and erosion prone areas along the Jamuna, Ganges and Padma rivers. The Flood and Riverbank Erosion Risk Management Investment Program is working within the plans of the Government of Bangladesh to strategically manage flood and riverbank erosion risks along the country''s main rivers to reduce damages to people''s assets and to lessen constraint to economic development. It will finance the construction of riverbank revetments, which protects vulnerable riverbanks and therefore assets and flood embankments behind the riverbanks from progressive erosions. Flood embankments will also be rehabilitated or constructed. The investment program will include training for communities to develop their capacity to operate and maintain the structures and to manage flood and erosion risks at the community level. The community capacity development will be combined with livelihood improvement supports. The investment program will include the construction of about 50 kilometers (km) of riverbank protection structures; rehabilitation and construction of 89 km of flood embankments with climate-resilient design; and a piloting of innovative riverbank protection structures. The investment program also supports the national-level institutional capacity strengthening for more strategic planning and implementation of flood and erosion risk management. This will improve the lives of the people living in the affected areas.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
||People in Bangladesh are often affected by water-related natural disasters, including floods, riverbank erosion, drought, cyclones, and tidal surges. About a fifth of the country is inundated annually. This is due largely to the location of the country on a vast flat floodplain at the confluence of three main rivers the Jamuna (and Padma), the Ganges, and the Meghna. Riverbank erosion is one of the most prominent disasters in Bangladesh, caused by highly dynamic river morphology. It causes the loss of about 5,000 to 6,000 hectares of floodplain land each year, affecting about 100,000 people. The high possibility of riverbank erosions hinders construction and rehabilitation of flood embankments. The threat of frequent flood and erosion disasters discourages investment and leads to low economic growth of riverine areas. The poor who tend to live in vulnerable riverine lands face significant social hardship. They lose their homesteads, lands, and crops, and they are forced to move to another vulnerable riverine lands or urban slums. Improved infrastructure and flood and erosion risk management is essential for economic growth, livelihood improvement and poverty reduction in the flood and erosion affected area.
||improved livelihoods in the project area.
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
||The first tranche is categorized A for environment. Project interventions will result in positive impacts such as reduced flood damage to crops, security of land from erosion, and improved agricultural and investment conditions. However, changes in floodplain hydrology resulting from construction of flood embankments will bring some negative impacts. The key potential negative impacts are impacts on floodplain-dependent open water fish species and floodplain aquatic habitats, and potential loss of natural wetland production. areas. Measures to mitigate these impacts have been built into the project design and addressed in the government's environmental impact assessment, which contains the environmental management plan. Additional environment studies will be conducted during the first tranche to formulate measures to offset residual impacts. In addition to these studies, a strategic environmental assessment, which will assess the impacts of the investment program, will also be carried out during the first tranche. The environmental impact assessment was uploaded on ADB's website, meeting the 120 days disclosure requirement. An environmental assessment and review framework has also been developed for the MFF. Stakeholders to be affected have been consulted and a grievance redress mechanism has been established.
The first tranche is categorized A for involuntary resettlement. About 94 hectares of land will be acquired for the Jamuna right bank 1 subproject area. The land is required for (i) restoration of an embankment along the Jamuna River (12.5 km), (ii) rehabilitation of embankments along tributaries (10.5 km), and (iii) riverbank protection works along the Jamuna River (1.0 km). The land acquisition will affect 1,184 households comprising 8,953 persons, of which 4,393 persons will lose 10% or more of their productive assets. The remaining 4,560 persons will be physically displaced. The affected persons are also direct beneficiaries of the flood and riverbank erosion protection. Impacts of the land acquisition include loss of land, structures, and trees. A resettlement framework and a resettlement plan have been finalized and were agreed with the executing agency, following government laws and regulations and ADB's Safeguard Policy Statement. They were disclosed on the ADB website with endorsement by the executing agency. The resettlement plan includes a relocation plan as well as economic rehabilitation of the affected persons. Extensive consultations with the affected persons were conducted during the TA, and relevant information from the resettlement plan was explained to them. BWDB has developed institutional capacity for mitigating social risks through executing a number of externally funded projects.
Two more resettlement plans for the remaining two subproject areas will be prepared under the first tranche, for resettlement and land acquisition of 14 km of riverbank protection works along the Jamuna and Padma rivers. Resettlement plans for these areas will be prepared after approval of the first tranche by ADB's Board of Directors, and just before the construction of structures, in accordance with the resettlement framework; the estimated budget is included in the project cost. This flexibility will facilitate dealing with significant riverbank alignment changes resulting from progressive erosions. Stakeholders in the two subproject areas have been consulted during the TA.
||The first tranche is categorized C for indigenous peoples. There are no indigenous peoples as defined for operational purposes by ADB s Safeguard Policy Statement in any of the identified subproject areas of the first tranche and subsequent tranches under the investment program. As the subsequent tranches will also be categorized C, an indigenous peoples planning framework for the investment program was not prepared.
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design
Various groups of stakeholders were consulted at different stages of the project design. This includes consultation for identifying needs, discussing possible solutions, and describing the proposed project design.
Findings of the PPTA and project design were explained and discussed at the inception, interim and draft final workshops during the PPTA, with the participation of government officials of the EA and other government agencies, development partners, academic institutions, NGOs and local stakeholders.
Particularly for local people in the candidate subproject areas, including potential project affected people, due consultations were held with a focus on women, landless and other vulnerable groups regarding: (i) flood and erosion protection needs, (ii) relocation and livelihood issues, (iii) possible solutions to resolve the constraints identified, and (iv) institutional mechanism to address those constraints. Subproject level workshops were also held to explain and discuss the proposed the proposed project design.
|During Project Implementation
||Similar intensive stakeholder consultations will be held during project implementation and for the preparation of future tranches. Regular workshops will be conducted to exchange information and findings of the project with different government agencies, development partners, resource institutions, NGOs, local communities and other parties concerned. Local communities will participate in the project implementation through: (i) formulation of community-based disaster management committees, (ii) community capacity development activities for community-based flood and erosion disaster risk management and participatory regular operation and maintenance (O&M), and (iii) livelihood support activities. Civil societies will be engaged for the implementation of these activities that involve community mobilization and participation. A significant number of local residents will also participate in civil works for erosion protection and flood embankments as labor.