Regional: Harnessing Climate Change Mitigation Initiatives to Benefit Women

Sovereign Project | 45039-001

Summary

The proposed RETA will support human resource and technical capacity development for implementing agencies to integrate gender analysis in climate change policy frameworks and screening of emission reduction projects; for women's groups to gain co-benefits from appropriate emissions reductions technologies; and national/sub-national women's ministries to engage in and promote more equitable benefit distribution of climate change finance in dialogue with government agencies managing national climate change responses. The RETA will build on existing ADB investments and NGO interventions by piloting a model to develop low carbon projects with gender-equality benefits and demonstrate how climate financing can provide benefits to women for their contributions to GHG reductions in addition to productive industries The RETA will complement existing interventions by providing them with focused support to engage women's groups as agents of change and access climate finance.

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Project Name Harnessing Climate Change Mitigation Initiatives to Benefit Women
Project Number 45039-001
Country Regional
Project Status Approved
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Technical Assistance
Source of Funding / Amount
TA 7914-REG: Harnessing Climate Change Mitigation Initiatives to Benefit Women
Nordic Development Fund US$ 2.70 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Governance and capacity development
Partnerships
Sector / Subsector Energy - Energy efficiency and conservation
Water and other urban infrastructure and services - Urban policy, institutional and capacity development - Urban solid waste management
Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Gender equity
Description

The proposed RETA will support human resource and technical capacity development for implementing agencies to integrate gender analysis in climate change policy frameworks and screening of emission reduction projects; for women's groups to gain co-benefits from appropriate emissions reductions technologies; and national/sub-national women's ministries to engage in and promote more equitable benefit distribution of climate change finance in dialogue with government agencies managing national climate change responses. The RETA will build on existing ADB investments and NGO interventions by piloting a model to develop low carbon projects with gender-equality benefits and demonstrate how climate financing can provide benefits to women for their contributions to GHG reductions in addition to productive industries The RETA will complement existing interventions by providing them with focused support to engage women's groups as agents of change and access climate finance.

Host ADB and NGO projects which will serve as anchors for the RETA. These include ADB's GMS (7833) Capacity Building for Efficient Utilization of Biomass for Bioenergy and Food Secutiry in Cambodia and SNV's Improved Cook Stove National Program in Lao PDR. In Viet Nam, ADB project teams have already raised awareness about the need for climate responsive investments. This TA will go further by building stronger implementation partners at the local level in women's groups as well as supporting these groups to access climate financing. In Lao PDR, SNV's Improved Cookstoves Program is based on more than a year of ground work. ADB will increase development impact and benefit shares for women to the existing value chain design on several levels. These include: (1) support policy level engagement through bringing stakeholders together and supporting MONRE to create a better enabling environment for projects with high community-level sustainable development impacts; (2) inform principles and rules of revenue sharing from carbon projects; (3) mobilize women's participation along the ICS value chain; and (4) incorporation of successful elements in replication into other provinces as the national program is scaled up. Support provided will develop baselines and monitoring schemes which show concrete emissions reductions, making projects eligible for climate finance. The climate mitigation components will complement environmental improvements planned by the host projects and increase their financial sustainability. Design of pilot projects to be implemented by women's group will increase social inclusion and gender benefits.

The governments of Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam have prioritized poverty reduction and environmental management in their medium term strategic plans. In parallel, ADB has prioritized addressing social inclusion and climate change in operations. The RETA directly responds to three of the five strategic thrusts outlined in the GMS Strategic Framework; Develop human resources and skill competencies; Protect the environment and promote sustainable use of natural resources; and Enhance private sector participation and improve competitiveness. The strategic framework recognizes the need to take action on climate change mitigation through reducing carbon emissions and rewarding carbon sinks. The RCOBP highlights increased focus envisaged on climate change and the environment. The Updated Regional COBP Results Framework 2011-2013 identifies increased access to renewable energy and increased energy efficiency; and sustainable development and increased resilience to climate change as key components of its regional objectives.

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Climate Change Impacts are not Gender Neutral

Rising incidence of floods, landslides, drought, urban pollution, and depleting natural resources linked to climate change impacts has been observed in Southeast Asia. Climate change impacts are not gender neutral: Addressing poverty and climate change concerns cannot be grasped without an understanding of gender differentiated rights, roles, and responsibilities of women and men. In the face of seasonal and/or catastrophic climate change events, women are less equipped to respond and are, due to gender roles; often face the brunt of these events. Women and girls have disproportionately low access to employment and income generating opportunities (limited education and skills base, lack of access to capital and markets); and socioeconomic status (lacking legal protection and ownership rights). In addition, the provision of services (clean water, waste management, household energy) and exposure to environmental hazards (reproductive work position women closer to unsafe environments) are linked to gender roles. Disproportionate impacts on poor and vulnerable groups, in particular women, disrupt livelihoods, produce unsafe environments and limit access to clean water and essential services.

Women are Agents of Change in Promoting Climate Change Responses

Women are not simply hapless victims of climate change, but are powerful agents of change who are stewards and managers of water, fuel, and waste resources. Evidence, such as in Nepal and India, demonstrates that linkages empowering women as resource managers and entrepreneurs present a powerful strategy for addressing both local and global environment concerns. Despite this, there is an institutional gender blindness that renders women's participation and contributions invisible and for resource management to be incorrectly treated as gender neutral. National energy, transport and urban development policies and organizations overlook women's specific needs and contributions, in part because the management of energy, transport and urban infrastructure has been cast as the work of men (e.g. engineers, surveyors and scientists).

Climate change financing mechanisms neglect sustainable development concerns

As a result of the Copenhagen Accord, developed countries pledged to mobilize $30 billion per year in additional climate change financing until 2020 and $100 billion per year thereafter. Dedicated financing windows and partnerships have already been established. Despite increasing attention on low-carbon and climate resilient growth paths, social dimensions of climate change are little understood. Climate change financing mechanisms have been criticized for prioritizing greenhouse (GHG) emissions reductions over sustainable development concerns. Many financial instruments responding to the climate change challenge are new and just beginning to consider social safeguards to govern their distribution.

While vulnerable, resource dependent groups such as indigenous peoples are being taken into account in emerging policy discussions, gender concerns are sorely missing. A new approach is needed, to weave gender concerns in national screening processes such that gender concerns are incorporated in project design guidelines; impacts are monitored or verified; and to enable wider stakeholder representation in national climate change planning forums. Innovative approaches are needed to ensure climate change financing mechanisms value sustainable development benefits and facilitate projects with high development impact and gender co-benefits.

Capacity Development Needs

Capacity development of government authorities at the provincial and local levels is needed to capture, regulate and distribute the influx of climate change finance in an efficient and gender equitable manner. National women's ministries, mandated to promote women's empowerment and gender mainstreaming, are equally without expertise to engage in investments in technical sectors related to climate change. While local communities and organizations are best positioned to identify projects that meet local needs and priorities, knowledge of the technical and financial requirements limit their access to climate change finance opportunities.

Low-carbon technologies and access to climate change financing opportunities present co-benefits for women

The considerable funding mobilized under the existing climate change finance mechanisms provides opportunities for projects with significant implications on local and women's livelihoods. Climate finance projects can reduce the vulnerability of women to climate change by providing more secure livelihoods and access to modern technology while also promoting MDG goals for environmental sustainability and gender equality (MDG 3 and 7). Women could spend less time obtaining fuel wood, have access to cleaner energy sources, clean water, provide safe local environmental conditions and improve their own livelihoods. For urban areas, landfill methane recovery and utilization as energy, comprehensive waste management, and alternative waste management (recycling, composting and others) have been identified as priority mitigation options that also address these issues.

Linking Climate Change Finance Opportunities and gendered co-benefits: Need for Pilot Demonstration

There are many established low-carbon technologies but not adequate financing to spread them. Expected high transaction costs have hindered both small-scale project development and access to climate finance. Although with often significant social development impact; the distributive costs associated with high client spread, human resource-intensive projects may not be immediately attractive to international finance institutions with respect to overall investment amount. A number of challenges can also inhibit small-scale projects from accessing climate finance, including high up-front project development costs. However, in response to these development challenges, climate financing is attractive as it offers a long-term source of revenue to sustain projects. Further, given women's roles and responsibilities in fuel/energy, and waste management, low carbon technologies provide an existing platform to improve global environment and empower women from the co-benefits that reduce their time, reduce health and sanitation risks, and increase their access to clean energy sources. Revenue from market-based climate mechanisms, such as the carbon markets, presents an important opportunity to empower womenSs groups to implement these technologies as an entrepreneurial initiative, earning benefits from the carbon revenue and developing skills to handle clean technologies and better waste management approaches.

Impact Improved access to low-carbon technology and carbon revenue financing improves livelihoods of women in urban and peri-urban areas in DMC pilot sites
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Improved enabling environment for gender-sensitive climate change mitigation policies and finance in target DMCs.
Progress Toward Outcome
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

1.Gender concerns mainstreamed in national or sub-national climate change strategies, action plans, and mitigation plans.

2. Effective mechanism supporting stakeholder engagement process and gender equitable benefit distribution identified for replication.

3. Three pilot projects successfully implemented by National Women's Groups to develop local tools and mechanisms in order to access climate financing

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)
Geographical Location Cambodia,Lao PDR,Viet Nam
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design

Proposed executing/implementing agency (EA/IA)

ADB will be the EA.

The IAs for each country will be:

Vietnam: Quang Binh Province Urban Environment and Development One Member Limited Company (URENCO)

Cambodia: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF)

Lao PDR: The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE).

As the TA will work through and add value to existing host ADB investment projects and/or partners, government IA partners will already have undergone institutional/organizational/procurement/financial management assessments as of previous loan approval process.

During Project Implementation

ADB will administer the TA. ADB will engage the services of an international NGO, consulting firm, globally recognized centers of excellence in climate change and individual consultants, in accordance with the Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (April 2010, as amended from time to time) using Quality and Cost- Based Selection for Full Technical Proposal with a Quality Cost ratio of 90:10. Disbursement under the TA will be done in accordance with ADB's Technical Assistance Disbursement Handbook (May 2010, amended from time to time). Any procurement activities under the TA financed by ADB will be implemented in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines (April 2010, as amended from time to time). Upon completion of the TA, the assets will be turned over to the IA. Some 68 person-months of international consultancy and 95 person-months of national consulting services will be required by the R-CDTA. Expertise will be required in the following areas: (i) Regional Coordinator - 30 pm, (ii) Social Development/Gender Specialist - 6 pm, (iii) Institutional Development Specialist - 4 pm, (iv) Knowledge Hub Coordination/Climate Change Specialist - 9 pm(v) Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist - 4 pm, and (vi) Knowledge Hub Researcher - 12 pm. National Specialists will be needed as counterparts for the above positions totaling 95 pm.

LAO

The Department of Disaster Risk Management within MONRE will provide the overall coordination of the R-CDTA and ensure the participation of the Climate Change Office, Department of Environment, MONRE; Lao Women's Union (LWU); SNV; and other relevant stakeholders during R-CDTA implementation. MONRE will establish a TA Coordination Committee for Lao PDR (chaired by the Director General of GMS National Secretariat) with members from the

Department of Environment, LWU, SNV, and relevant stakeholders. A Project Coordination Office will be established within the GMS National Secretariat and will be managed by a National Coordinator in collaboration with the Project Advisor, engaged under the R-CDTA. The TA Coordination Committee will meet at least bi-annually or more frequently as necessary, to review and monitor project progress and approve requisite plans and budgets. The R-CDTA work plan for Lao PDR will be endorsed by the Coordination Committee before submission to ADB for final approval.

CAMBODIA

The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) will be the implementing agency for the Cambodia pilot project and will provide the overall coordination of the R-CDTA and ensure the participation of other relevant stakeholders during R-CDTA implementation. The R-CDTA will pilot activities in coordination with R-CDTA: Capacity Building for Efficient Utilization of Biomass for Bioenergy and Food Security in the GMS, with MAFF also providing overall supervision and guidance. A Project Coordination Office will be established within MAFF and will be managed by a National Coordinator nominated by MAFF in collaboration with a Project Advisor, engaged under the R-CDTA. The TA Coordination Committee will meet at least bi-annually, or more frequently, to review and monitor project progress and approve requisite plans and budgets.

VIET NAM

Quang Binh Province Urban Environment and Development One Member Limited Company (URENCO) will be the implementing agency (IA) for the Viet Nam pilot project. Quang Binh Provincial People's Committee (QBPPC) will provide the overall coordination of the R-CDTA and ensure the participation of Department of Natural Resources and Environment (DONRE); Department of Construction (DOC); Provincial and Dong Hoi Women's Union (VWU);

URENCO; and other relevant stakeholders during R-CDTA implementation. QBPPC will establish the R-CDTA steering committee (SC) for Viet Nam (chaired by Mr. Nguyen Xuan Quang, Vice-Chairman of Quang Binh PPC) with members from the DONRE, DOC, VWU, URENCO, and relevant stakeholders. A project coordination office will be established within the QBPPC and will be managed by a national coordinator from URENCO in collaboration with the project advisor, engaged under the R-CDTA. The SC will meet at least bi-annually or more frequently as necessary, to review and monitor

project progress and approve requisite plans and budgets. The R-CDTA work plan for Viet Nam will be endorsed by the SC before submission to ADB for final approval.

Business Opportunities
Consulting Services

Four types of consulting services are required, using 69 person-months of international consultant services and 95 person-months of national consultant services.

ADB will select and engage consultants in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2010, as amended from time to time). Disbursements under the TA will be made in accordance with ADB's Technical Assistance Disbursement Handbook (2010, as amended from time to time).

Procurement All procurement will be made in accordance with ADB's Procurement Guidelines (2010, as amended from time to time). Advance actions for recruitment will be undertaken to ensure timely fielding of consultants immediately after TA effectiveness. After completion of the TA, the equipment will be handed over to the implementing agencies.
Responsible ADB Officer Linda Adams
Responsible ADB Department Southeast Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Urban Development and Water Division, SERD
Executing Agencies
Asian Development Bank6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong
Metro Manila, Philippines
P.O. Box 789, 1099 Manila,
Philippines
Timetable
Concept Clearance 02 May 2011
Fact Finding 03 May 2011 to 17 May 2011
MRM -
Approval 15 Nov 2011
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 23 Apr 2014

TA 7914-REG

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
15 Nov 2011 - 15 Nov 2011 31 Dec 2014 31 Dec 2015 -
Financing Plan/TA Utilization Cumulative Disbursements
ADB Cofinancing Counterpart Total Date Amount
Gov Beneficiaries Project Sponsor Others
0.00 2,700,000.00 300,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3,000,000.00 15 Nov 2011 1,263,495.18
Title Document Type Document Date
Harnessing Climate Change Mitigation Initiatives to Benefit Women Technical Assistance Reports Oct 2011

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