||Mainstreaming Climate Resilience into Development Planning
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount
|TA 8179-CAM: Mainstreaming Climate Resilience Into Development Planning|
|Strategic Climate Fund
|TA 8179-CAM: Mainstreaming Climate Resilience into Development Planning (Supplementary)|
|Strategic Climate Fund
|Nordic Development Fund
||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change
||Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector
Agriculture, natural resources and rural development
- Agricultural production
- Water-based natural resources management
- Renewable energy generation - solar
- Inclusive finance
- Infrastructure finance and investment funds
- Insurance and contractual savings
- Road transport (non-urban)
Water and other urban infrastructure and services
- Urban policy, institutional and capacity development
- Urban solid waste management
- Urban water supply
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
||Cambodia is one of the countries selected worldwide for the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR), which aims to demonstrate ways in integrating climate risk and resilience into development planning. With support from ADB and the World Bank Group, the Government of Cambodia (the Government) prepared the Strategic Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR), comprising seven investment projects and the proposed technical assistance (TA). The resource envelope for SPCR is $385 million including $86 million from PPCR and $299 million in co-financing from ADB and other development partners. The PPCR sub-committee endorsed SPCR in June 2011.
The TA will promote synergies between CCA and disatser risk reduction, sets up a common framework for monitoring and evaluation of all SPCR projects, and develops a knowledge and communications plan for each component that will be critical to sustaining the impact and effectiveness of current and future climate resilience investments. The TA will (i) strengthen capacity to coordinate all SPCR investments and to mainstream adaptation concerns into national and sub-national planning, budgeting and development in Cambodia; (ii) conduct feasibility studies for priority projects of the National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) with a view to secure additional funds from sources such as Adaptation Fund and Green Climate Fund; (iii) establish a civil society support mechanism to fund community-based adaptation activities and strengthen capacity of civil society organizations (CSOs) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to mainstream climate resilience into their operations; and (iv) generate and disseminate knowledge for climate change adaptation (CCA) in various sectors.
The expected impact of the TA is enhanced resilience to climate change in Cambodia leading to improved livelihoods, especially for vulnerable groups including women and children. By 2022, the number of households affected and economic losses resulting from extreme climate events will be reduced by 20% from the 2012 baseline. The expected outcome of the TA is sustained institutional and technical capacity to integrate adaptation concerns into development. By 2018, agreed strategies on adaptation will be integrated into at least three sectors. Also, at least 25% of projects in water resources, agriculture, transport, water supply and sanitation will be climate-proofed. By the TA end, it is expected that (i) risk screening tools are applied for projects in irrigation, flood prevention, agriculture, biodiversity, roads, water supply and sanitation, and urban development; and (ii) vulnerability assessments incorporating climate information are performed for projects determined at risk in key sectors.
The TA is expected to deliver four outputs:
1. SPCR coordination, technical support and capacity strengthened to mainstream climate change adaptation into development planning
2. Detailed feasibility studies conducted for selected NAPA priority projects to obtain international funding
3. Civil society support mechanism established and capacity of NGOs to mainstream adaptation and disaster risk reduction (DRR) into their operations strengthened
4. Climate change adaptation knowledge toolkits and products are developed, managed and disseminated
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
||Cambodia is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. Its high vulnerability is due its low adaptive capacity and high reliance on climate-sensitive sectors such as water resources and agriculture. Infrastructure-related losses from impacts of climate change such as floods are also high. The 2011 floods alone, for example, caused an estimated $451 million in damages and $174 million in losses. Analysis of 14 general circulation models suggests that rainy season will commence later, wet season rainfall will increase (bringing more flooding) and dry season rainfall will decrease (leading to droughts). Damage from typhoons may be severe in future. Cambodia's 435 km coastline and large parts of the Mekong River flood plain may be affected by sea level rise, which is projected to make more areas vulnerable to floods, salinity intrusion, and coastal inundation with adverse implications for food and water security, and infrastructure stability. Climate change thus poses a serious threat to sustainable development in Cambodia.
Cambodia has shown strong commitment to address climate change by ratifying the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1996 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2003. In 1999, MOE created a Climate Change Office, which was elevated to the Department of Climate Change in 2010. In 2006, it established the National Committee on Climate Change (NCCC) comprising high-level representatives from 20 ministries. The Prime Minister has been the honorary chair of NCCC since 2009. In October 2006, the Government completed the National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA), which included 39 priority adaptation projects in sectors such as agriculture, water resources, coastal zone management, and human health. In March 2009, the Government launched the Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP) for disaster risk reduction (DRR), 2008-2013, which covers many themes on climate change adaptation (CCA). In addition, the Government has begun preparing the Cambodian Climate Change Strategic Plan to provide a strategic framework for responding to climate change.
Notwithstanding the above, the impacts of climate change on economic performance and the achievement of long-term socio-economic objectives are not yet well articulated. Also development planning in key sectors (water resources, agriculture, transport, urban planning) does not consider risks associated with climate change. This is primarily due to constraints that include (i) limited awareness of climate change impacts on sector projects and programs; (ii) inadequate availability and access to reliable data, information and assessments of local vulnerabilities and impacts; (iii) limited institutional capacities; and (iv) limited financial resources. Also there has been slow progress in coordinating adaptation investments, piloting adaptation interventions, and in scaling up best practices. Therefore, targeted assistance to overcome such barriers and enhance the capacity for mainstreaming adaptation and disaster risk reduction into development planning, combined with other initiatives to strengthen collaborative mechanisms for dissemination of climate change information, is considered crucial and timely.
The proposed TA supports Cambodia's National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP update: 2009-2013) and its objectives. The NSDP provides the roadmap for implementation of "Phase II Rectangular Strategy for Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency", which aims at enhancing public institutional capacity, promoting good governance, and modernizing infrastructure in order to foster economic growth, create jobs for all citizens, ensure social equity, and increase public sector efficiency as well as protect natural and cultural resources, which are vital for sustainable development and poverty reduction. The TA directly supports NAPA through undertaking feasibility studies for priority projects, and the SNAP through enhancing capacity to mainstream DRR into national, sector and local development policies and plans. It also supports the 2010-2019 implementation plans for decentralization and de-concentration under the National Program for Sub-National Democratic Development, which calls for mainstreaming climate change at sub-national levels.
The proposed TA closely aligns with ADB Strategy 2020, Southeast Asia Department's Climate Change Implementation Plan and various sector Assessment, Strategy and Roadmaps. It has strong synergies with the Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) 2011-2013, which recognizes the need to increase institutional and human capacity to (i) mainstream climate change in sector analysis, planning and project design; (ii) improve approaches to resource conservation in the Tonle Sap basin; (iii) coordinate national and sub-regional programs on climate change and the environment; and (iv) access finance from internal and external sources to support climate change activities in new and existing projects. The TA provides an overarching framework to support the 7 ADB investment projects related to water resources, agriculture, and infrastructure. Coordination, monitoring and evaluation of all SPCR investments, knowledge generation, and additional fund generation for unfunded adaptation projects are all critical activities of PPCR, and the proposed TA is aimed at fulfilling such roles. The TA builds on and promotes synergies with work being undertaken under Phase 1 of PPCR and other initiatives such as the Cambodia Climate Change Alliance . The TA also provides strong links with other ADB projects which include adaptation activities and adaptation projects of other bilateral development partners such as JICA, AusAID, IDRC and others.
Enchanced resilience to climate change in Cambodia, leading to improved livelihoods, especially for vulnerable groups such as women and children.
The expected impact is enhanced resilience to climate change in Cambodia leading to improved livelihoods, especially for vulnerable groups including women and children
|Description of Outcome
||Sustained institutional and technical capacity to integrate adaptation concerns into development
|Progress Toward Outcome
||TA implementation ongoing.
|Description of Project Outputs
SPCR coordination, technical support, and capacity to mainstream climate resilience into development planning strengthened
Detailed feasibility studies for selected NAPA projects conducted
Civil society support mechanism established, and capacity of NGOs and CSOs to mainstream adaptation and DRR into their operations strengthened
Climate change adaptation knowledge toolkits and products are developed, managed and disseminated
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)
The consulting team came on board in September 2013 and an inception workshop was held in December 2013. However, the contract was terminated in June 2014 due to the firm' s breach of contract. A replacement firm was mobilized in February 2015. A coordinating NGO to operate the civil society support facility under Package B was mobilized in April 2015.
In keeping with the key challenges and guiding principles for implementation identified by the project team, the implementation methodology to be used will focus on streams of related and reinforcing action that encourage gradual reform and enhance resilience systematically.
The first will inform policies to enhance climate resilience through the application of climate risk screening tools in the development of projects. This work will be implemented over approximately two and a half years and will involve: (i) proper planning for successful implementation, (ii) applying climate change vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning processes to sector infrastructure through demonstrations at provincial and local levels, and (iii) mainstreaming climate change in target sector policies and guidelines.
The second will involve cross-cutting activities, which are intended to be implemented over the full life of the project. These will focus on communicating the project's activities and monitoring project implementation and will include: (i) strengthening SPCR coordination and institutions for mainstreaming climate change into planning and implementation, (ii) capacity building with sectors to enhance climate resilience systematically, (iii) communicating project activities and results through knowledge products and systems that inform stakeholders and the broader public about the project's activities and the value of efforts to enhance climate change resilience, and (iv) establishing a strong foundation to monitor and evaluate project outcomes.
Approximately 120 Expressions of interest (EOIs) were received from Cambodia CSO for implemnting community focused adaptation projects. The deadsline was extended to 30 September 2015 to receive additional EOIs from under-represented sectors and geographic regions.
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design
||Based on stakeholder consultations held between March and May 2011, the outcomes and outputs of the proposed TA were included in the SPCR. ADB then circulated a draft TA concept paper for comment by government ministries, civil society organizations, development partners and other stakeholders. A consensus emerged on the need to strengthen capacity of key stakeholders to mainstream climate resilience into development planning. Following a fact-finding mission from 18 to 24 April 2012, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) was signed with the Secretaries of State of both the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE) on 3 May 2012, agreeing to the core elements of the TA (impact, outcome, outputs, cost, implementation arrangements, and terms of reference of consultants).
|During Project Implementation
||Soon after mobilizing the consulting team on 2 September 2013, a kick-off workshop for the TA was held on 19 September 2013 to discuss updates to SPCR. Several meetings with the government representatives, civil society organizations and academia were held to identify capacity building needs and gaps, and prepare the draft inception report. The inception workshop was held ion 3-4 December 2013. The revised inception report was submitted on 28 February 2014. A stakeholder meeting on monitoring and reporting of PPCR core indicators was held in May 2014. Additional stakeholder meetings on monitoring and reporting of PPCR core indicators were held in November and December 2014 in Battambang and Kampong Cham respectively. Additional consultations were held in July 2015.