Cambodia: Mainstreaming Climate Resilience into Development Planning

Sovereign Project | 45283-001 Status: Active

Summary

Cambodia is one of the countries selected worldwide for the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR), which aims to demonstrate ways in integrating climate risk and resilience into development planning. With support from ADB and the World Bank Group, the Government of Cambodia (the Government) prepared the Strategic Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR), comprising seven investment projects and an overarching technical assistance (TA) project. The resource envelope for SPCR is $555 million including $91 million from PPCR and $464 million in co-financing from ADB and other development partners. The PPCR sub-committee endorsed SPCR in June 2011.

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Project Name Mainstreaming Climate Resilience into Development Planning
Project Number 45283-001
Country Cambodia
Project Status Active
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Technical Assistance
Source of Funding / Amount
TA 8179-CAM: Mainstreaming Climate Resilience Into Development Planning
Strategic Climate Fund US$ 7.00 million
TA 8179-CAM: Mainstreaming Climate Resilience into Development Planning (Supplementary)
Strategic Climate Fund US$ 3.00 million
Nordic Development Fund US$ 1.00 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Regional integration
Drivers of Change Governance and capacity development
Knowledge solutions
Partnerships
Sector / Subsector

Agriculture, natural resources and rural development - Agricultural production - Irrigation - Water-based natural resources management

Energy - Renewable energy generation - solar

Finance - Inclusive finance - Infrastructure finance and investment funds - Insurance and contractual savings

Transport - Road transport (non-urban)

Water and other urban infrastructure and services - Urban policy, institutional and capacity development - Urban solid waste management - Urban water supply

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Some gender elements
Description

Cambodia is one of the countries selected worldwide for the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR), which aims to demonstrate ways in integrating climate risk and resilience into development planning. With support from ADB and the World Bank Group, the Government of Cambodia (the Government) prepared the Strategic Program for Climate Resilience (SPCR), comprising seven investment projects and an overarching technical assistance (TA) project. The resource envelope for SPCR is $555 million including $91 million from PPCR and $464 million in co-financing from ADB and other development partners. The PPCR sub-committee endorsed SPCR in June 2011.

The TA will promote synergies between CCA and disaster risk reduction, sets up a common framework for monitoring and evaluation of all SPCR projects, and develops a knowledge and communications plan for each component that will be critical to sustaining the impact and effectiveness of current and future climate resilience investments. The TA will (i) strengthen capacity to coordinate all SPCR investments and to mainstream adaptation concerns into national and sub-national planning, budgeting and development in Cambodia; (ii) conduct feasibility studies for priority projects of the National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) with a view to secure additional funds from sources such as Adaptation Fund and Green Climate Fund; (iii) establish a civil society support mechanism to fund community-based adaptation activities and strengthen capacity of civil society organizations (CSOs) and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to mainstream climate resilience into their operations; and (iv) generate and disseminate knowledge for climate change adaptation (CCA) in various sectors.

The expected impact of the TA is enhanced resilience to climate change in Cambodia leading to improved livelihoods, especially for vulnerable groups including women and children. By 2022, the number of households affected and economic losses resulting from extreme climate events will be reduced by 20% from the 2012 baseline. The expected outcome of the TA is sustained institutional and technical capacity to integrate adaptation concerns into development. By 2018, agreed strategies on adaptation will be integrated into at least three sectors. Also, at least 25% of projects in water resources, agriculture, transport, water supply and sanitation will be climate-proofed. By the TA end, it is expected that (i) risk screening tools are applied for projects in irrigation, flood prevention, agriculture, biodiversity, roads, water supply and sanitation, and urban development; and (ii) vulnerability assessments incorporating climate information are performed for projects determined at risk in key sectors.<

The TA is expected to deliver four outputs:

1. SPCR coordination, technical support and capacity strengthened to mainstream climate change adaptation into development planning

2. Detailed feasibility studies conducted for selected NAPA priority projects to obtain international funding

3. Civil society support mechanism established and capacity of NGOs to mainstream adaptation and disaster risk reduction (DRR) into their operations strengthened

4. Climate change adaptation knowledge toolkits and products are developed, managed and disseminated

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Cambodia is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. Its high vulnerability is due its low adaptive capacity and high reliance on climate-sensitive sectors such as water resources and agriculture. Infrastructure-related losses from impacts of climate change such as floods are also high. The 2011 floods alone, for example, caused an estimated $451 million in damages and $174 million in losses. Analysis of 14 general circulation models suggests that rainy season will commence later, wet season rainfall will increase (bringing more flooding) and dry season rainfall will decrease (leading to droughts). Damage from typhoons may be severe in future. Cambodia's 435 km coastline and large parts of the Mekong River flood plain may be affected by sea level rise, which is projected to make more areas vulnerable to floods, salinity intrusion, and coastal inundation with adverse implications for food and water security, and infrastructure stability. Climate change thus poses a serious threat to sustainable development in Cambodia.

Cambodia has shown strong commitment to address climate change by ratifying the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1996 and the Kyoto Protocol in 2003. In October 2006, the Government completed the National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA), which included 39 priority adaptation projects in sectors such as agriculture, water resources, coastal zone management, and human health. In March 2009, the Government launched the Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP) for disaster risk reduction (DRR), 2008-2013, which covers many themes on climate change adaptation (CCA). In addition, the Government has begun preparing the Cambodian Climate Change Strategic Plan to provide a strategic framework for responding to climate change impacts of climate change on economic performance and the achievement of long-term socio-economic objectives are not yet well articulated. Also development planning in key sectors (water resources, agriculture, transport, urban planning) does not consider risks associated with climate change. This is primarily due to constraints that include (i) limited awareness of climate change impacts on sector projects and programs; (ii) inadequate availability and access to reliable data, information and assessments of local vulnerabilities and impacts; (iii) limited institutional capacities; and (iv) limited financial resources.

Also there has been slow progress in coordinating adaptation investments, piloting adaptation interventions, and in scaling up best practices. Therefore, targeted assistance to overcome such barriers and enhance the capacity for mainstreaming adaptation and disaster risk reduction into development planning, combined with other initiatives to strengthen collaborative mechanisms for dissemination of climate change information, is considered crucial and timely

The TA supports Cambodia's National Strategic Development Plan (NSDP update: 2009-2013) and its objectives. The NSDP provides the roadmap for implementation of "Phase II Rectangular Strategy for Growth, Employment, Equity and Efficiency", which aims at enhancing public institutional capacity, promoting good governance, and modernizing infrastructure in order to foster economic growth, create jobs for all citizens, ensure social equity, and increase public sector efficiency as well as protect natural and cultural resources, which are vital for sustainable development and poverty reduction. The TA directly supports NAPA through undertaking feasibility studies for priority projects, and the SNAP through enhancing capacity to mainstream DRR into national development plans.

Impact

Enchanced resilience to climate change in Cambodia, leading to improved livelihoods, especially for vulnerable groups such as women and children.

The expected impact is enhanced resilience to climate change in Cambodia leading to improved livelihoods, especially for vulnerable groups including women and children

Project Outcome

Description of Outcome Sustained institutional and technical capacity to integrate adaptation concerns into development
Progress Toward Outcome TA implementation ongoing.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

SPCR coordination, technical support, and capacity to mainstream climate resilience into development planning strengthened

Detailed feasibility studies for selected NAPA projects conducted

Civil society support mechanism established, and capacity of NGOs and CSOs to mainstream adaptation and DRR into their operations strengthened

Climate change adaptation knowledge toolkits and products are developed, managed and disseminated

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

The consulting team for Package A came on board in September 2013 and an inception workshop was held in December 2013. However, the contract was terminated in June 2014 due to the firm' s breach of contract. A replacement firm was mobilized in February 2015. A coordinating NGO to operate the civil society support facility under Package B was mobilized in April 2015. Shortlisting of firms for Package C focusing on gender, monitoring and evaluation, and mainstreaming climate resilience at sub-national levels was completed.

Progress for Outputs 1,2 and 4:

Inception/Scoping

o Intensive consultation and detailed discussions on inception report with all involved sectors provided a comprehensive road map and endorsement for the project; Scoping workshop held in July 2015

Institutional and coordination: 2 SPCR Coordination Team meetings held in 2015, with discussion of technical issues (screening and indicators of adaptation effectiveness) in the December meeting; Establishing mechanism for project implementation with water, agriculture and infrastructure sectors and other agencies through Adaptation Working Group, with regular round table meetings; Establishing coordination and collaboration mechanism for working with SPCR investment projects; Working with sector agencies to implement parts of their CCAPs through their CC Working Groups; Mechanisms for collaboration with other projects and initiatives, e.g. CCCA, GIZ, FAO, established with proposals for joint activities under consideration

Capacity Building: Series of visits to key provinces Prey Veng, Kampong Thom, Battambang, and later in April 2016 in Koh Kong and Mondulkiri to identify and describe various adaptation practices for each sector; 3 day training in Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation Planning in Battambang for over 60 government staff from sector and other SPCR agencies; Trianing of climate change risk screening tools by sector agencies to be held on 4 April

Technical papers: Preparation of a series of guides/case studies on climate resilient planning for infrastructure at penultimate draft for consultation with sector agencies for agriculture and infrastructure, Water resources is in preparation; Draft report on climate change risk screening tools prepared and circulated for sector agencies.

Feasibility studies: Process established for selection of project proposals for feasibility studies and demonstrations; Series of sectoral screening and scoping missions to identify and describe potential adaptation investment projects in selected provinces;

University and secondary curriculum development: Initial round table meetings with Universities completed; Development of detailed proposals for Climate change curriculum development with Royal Agriculture University

Publications and awareness raising: SPCR website established; 3 electronic newsletters produced

Progress for Output 3:

A: Partner selection process is nearing completion:

136 Expressions of interest (EOIs) were received from Cambodian CSOs for implementing community focused adaptation projects.

Partner selection was done in a 2-stage EOI and proposal development process which started in August 2015.

It factored in preset selection criteria and evaluation matrix and 5-person evaluation committee (including 1 person form MOE).

Geographic distribution, sector distribution, background checks, and absorption capacity factored into the selection of the final 19 list.

As of March 2016, 19 finalist organizations (18 NGOs and 1 CBO) are in a second final round of proposal revisions process.

Volume of sub-grants is 1.4 million in total, with grants ranging from $40,000 to $100,000 over 18 months sub grant period.

19 partners are broadly spread across 17 provinces, geographic zones (2 in coastal, 4 in uplands", 2 in urban, rest in Tonle Sap and Mekong basins)

And 19 partners spread across sectors: youth and education, climate smart agriculture and irrigation, Governance i.e mainstreaming CCA DRR into development planning, water supply and sanitation, livelihood, housing, social services, financial services etc&

Sub-projects are expected to be implemented from June 2016.

Completed 2 successive rounds of 4 day comprehensive training programs:

First training in October/November with 35 shortlisted CSOs to help understand CCA and DRR programming, give guidance to conduct community level vulnerability assessments and develop proposals

Second training in March to give more practical guidelines for project implementation and additional technical sector (IWRM, energy, DRR, mainstreaming into CDP&) and thematic (child centered CCA, gender and CCA etc..) modules.

Geographical Location

Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects

Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design Based on stakeholder consultations held between March and May 2011, the outcomes and outputs of the proposed TA were included in the SPCR. ADB then circulated a draft TA concept paper for comment by government ministries, civil society organizations, development partners and other stakeholders. A consensus emerged on the need to strengthen capacity of key stakeholders to mainstream climate resilience into development planning. Following a fact-finding mission from 18 to 24 April 2012, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) was signed with the Secretaries of State of both the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE) on 3 May 2012, agreeing to the core elements of the TA (impact, outcome, outputs, cost, implementation arrangements, and terms of reference of consultants).
During Project Implementation Soon after mobilizing the consulting team on 2 September 2013, a kick-off workshop for the TA was held on 19 September 2013 to discuss updates to SPCR. Several meetings with the government representatives, civil society organizations and academia were held to identify capacity building needs and gaps, and prepare the draft inception report. The inception workshop was held ion 3-4 December 2013. The revised inception report was submitted on 28 February 2014. A stakeholder meeting on monitoring and reporting of PPCR core indicators was held in May 2014. Additional stakeholder meetings on monitoring and reporting of PPCR core indicators were held in November and December 2014 in Battambang and Kampong Cham respectively. Additional consultations were held in July 2015.

Business Opportunities

Consulting Services

The TA will require (i) 126 international and 540 national person months to be provided by a consulting firm (Package A); (ii) an NGO/firm with operations in Cambodia to operate the civil society support mechanism (Package B); (iii) 54 international and 180 national person months to be provided by a consulting firm (Package C); and (iv) 20 international and 120 national person months to be recruited individually in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (April 2010, as amended from time to time).

Package A firm will implement activities under outputs 1 (effective SPCR coordination, technical support and capacity strengthening to mainstream adaptation into development planning); 2 (feasibility studies on selected NAPA priority projects to obtain international funding); and 4 (development and dissemination of adaptation knowledge toolkits and products).

Package B will implement activities under output 2 (civil society support mechanism to strengthen capacity of NGOs to mainstream adaptation).

Package C will implement activities related to gender mainstreaming, monitoring and evaluation, and mainstreaming at sub-national levels.

Individual consultants will assist in coordination, reporting, and monitoring of the entire program.

Package A firm was recruited in February 2015; Package B NGO was recruited in April 2015. Package C firm is expected to be recruited by June 2016.

Procurement Procurement of office furniture and equipment is through Advance Payment Facility at the Ministry of Environment.

Responsible Staff

Responsible ADB Officer Srinivasan Ancha
Responsible ADB Department Southeast Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Environment, Natural Resources & Agriculture Division, SERD
Executing Agencies
Ministry of Environment
No. 48, Samdach Preah Sihanouk,
Tonle Bassac, Chamkarmon,
Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Timetable

Concept Clearance 17 Apr 2012
Fact Finding 18 Apr 2012 to 24 Apr 2012
MRM -
Approval -
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 30 Mar 2016

TA 8179-CAM

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
01 Oct 2012 31 Oct 2012 31 Oct 2012 31 Dec 2017 31 Dec 2019 -
Financing Plan/TA Utilization Cumulative Disbursements
ADB Cofinancing Counterpart Total Date Amount
Gov Beneficiaries Project Sponsor Others
0.00 11,000,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 11,000,000.00 01 Oct 2012 1,523,949.40
Title Document Type Document Date
Mainstreaming Climate Resilience into Development Planning: Major Change in Technical Assistance (TA 8179-CAM) TA Change in Scope, Amount, and Implementation Arrangements Dec 2015
Mainstreaming Climate Resilience into Development Planning Technical Assistance Reports Sep 2012

Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards

Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.

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Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation

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Related Publications

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