The proposed TA will support an interactive process with a select set of cities to review innovative urban risk reduction practice in those cities and elsewhere and to develop guidance materials for more effectively addressing risk reduction and adaptation in the design, implementation and management of urban development projects. The target audience for these guidance materials will be city planners and manages within DMC cities throughout Asia and the Pacific and sector specialists from ADB and other development partners working on urban development projects. To maximize the range of city experience contributing to the TA, the participating cities will be selected in consultation with Regional Department and Resident Mission staff and development partners using a set of criteria (outlined below in section 12a) to ensure diversity in terms of regional representation, city size and type, risk profile, and level of capacity.
|Project Name||Addressing Disaster Risk through Improved Indicators and Land Use Management|
Asian Development Bank
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Public sector management / Economic affairs management
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Some gender elements|
The proposed TA will support an interactive process with a select set of cities to review innovative urban risk reduction practice in those cities and elsewhere and to develop guidance materials for more effectively addressing risk reduction and adaptation in the design, implementation and management of urban development projects. The target audience for these guidance materials will be city planners and manages within DMC cities throughout Asia and the Pacific and sector specialists from ADB and other development partners working on urban development projects. To maximize the range of city experience contributing to the TA, the participating cities will be selected in consultation with Regional Department and Resident Mission staff and development partners using a set of criteria (outlined below in section 12a) to ensure diversity in terms of regional representation, city size and type, risk profile, and level of capacity. Five to six cities will be involved in the workshop activities under the TA and three of those cities will be selected for further development of case studies under the TA.
The activities and outputs of the TA will build on existing knowledge materials and practice to structure, format, and disseminate the guidance materials in ways that the city planners and sector specialists typically access information. The TA will develop and test guidance in three areas: risk-sensitive land use planning; incentives for promoting risk reduction investments by national and local governments, the private sector, and civil society; and straight-forward indicators for measuring progress in risk reduction and adaptation. In addition the TA will focus specific attention on addressing three key weaknesses in the application to date of land use planning and development incentives for effective risk reduction: (i) establishment of whole of community approaches to risk reduction and adaptation that include poor communities and informal settlements which have often been excluded from land use planning systems and systematic investments or economic incentives for infrastructure development, (ii) effective enforcement of regulatory controls (e.g., land use designations and building codes), and (iii) integration into comprehensive set of risk reduction and adaptation measures -- under ADB's integrated disaster risk management (IDRM) framework) -- including hazard mapping and risk profiling, vulnerability assessment, awareness raising and capacity development, and performance monitoring.
Specifically, the TA will develop a set of tools for national and local governments in developing member countries (DMCs) and ADB project managers to use in promoting risk-sensitive land use management and incentives for risk reduction in ADB-funded and other sector development projects. These tools will contribute toward the development of a toolkit for local governments to use in planning and implementing comprehensive disaster risk management and adaptation measures.
The TA will have three primary components. The first component will focus on the development of a set of guides on integrating risk-sensitive land use management into sector development projects including urban development, transport, and water to ensure that infrastructure and settlements are sited with appropriate sensitivity to risks from extreme events related to all relevant natural hazards and climate change. The second component will develop an analytic study of incentives for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation and how these have been used to align decision-making among various sets of urban stakeholders, including national and local government, the private sector, and civil society. The third component will develop a set of urban risk indicators to track progress in implementing urban risk reduction measures.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
High levels of urbanization and poverty and low levels of effective risk governance are compounding disaster exposure and vulnerability for populations throughout Asia and the Pacific. Population settlements have often been located in areas of high disaster risk as a result of geographic amenities -- such as easy communication and transport along rivers and coasts and picturesque locations along coastal mountains -- that also bring significant exposure to disaster hazards. These same rivers and coasts are often at high risk for flooding and coastal mountains or bays are often situated along ridgelines or trenchlines linked to earthquakes faults.
This vulnerability is exacerbated by faulty systems of land management -- where lands which should have been left as floodplains, fault easements, or forests are deemed habitable or used for informal settlement due to the lack of effective land access policies. As more people migrate into existing settlements that typically have weak regulatory and planning regimes, the carrying capacities of both natural resource systems and infrastructure systems are increasingly strained, and the poorest and most vulnerable often find themselves living on marginal land that is risk prone. Weak compliance with and enforcement of building regulations further add to the vulnerability of urban housing and infrastructure to hazard events. In these situations individual and household incentives for investing in risk reduction are diminished, leading to accumulations of disaster vulnerability, damage, and loss which lead to further poverty in a negative spiral. Climate change is predicted to increase these negative impacts both through the increased frequency and severity of certain types of disaster events and through impacts on livelihoods that may reduce coping capacities.
The trend of urban risk accumulation can be reversed if risk sensitive policies and practices are incorporated into urban development. Land use planning and zoning are standard tools for managing urban development which are used to varying extents throughout most countries in Asia and the Pacific and can be readily modified to include risk management elements. However, in most instances existing land use plans are not properly implemented or enforced with regard to protecting against disaster risk and do not incorporate mechanisms for DRR or CCA. In essence, the land use planning process and its regulatory environment are risk-blind.
The knowledge exists to achieve risk-resilient development and there is an increasing awareness among development professionals about the negative consequences of disaster hazards including those related to climate change. However, this knowledge has not found itself into day-to-day practice. The main reason is that disaster-risk management and adaptation are still often managed separately from urban development planning. To bridge this gap better tools and shared learning are needed that highlight how to take advantage of opportunities for integrating risk reduction into urban development processes and systems and also for using an all-hazards approach that captures the synergies between climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) so that investments in these areas offer two-pronged protection. These tools and learning also need to be carefully matched to the specific needs and context of the planners and development professional, and incorporated into disaster risk management practices.
Link to Country Partnership Strategy/Regional Cooperation Strategy:
The TA is a regional RDTA that will engage cities from several DMCs. These cities and DMCs have not been selected yet, but will be chosen on the basis of
(i) risk exposure and vulnerability
(ii) regional/geographic diversity
(iii) progress in initiating or achieving risk-sensitive land use plans and development projects
(iv) alignment with Country Partnership Strategy or Country Operation Business Plans
(v) potential receptiveness to proposed TA outputs
(vi) presence/absence of international donor community resources
(vii) potential to benefit cities through application of TA results to existing or future ADB investment projects (based on a review of ADB project pipelines for DMCs in which short-listed cities are located).
The TA contributes to ADB's commitments under Strategy 2020 which recognizes disaster risk management as a vital part of the development process and strives to continue to mainstream disaster risk management and to improve disaster and emergency assistance.
The TA will also build on the foundation of the Urban Operations Plan (under development), Water Operations Plan (under development), and the Sustainable Transport Initiative Operational Plan to ensure relevance of TA outputs to related ADB policy and guidance.
|Impact||Strengthened access to tools and guidance on risk-sensitive land use planning and development leading to reduced urban disaster risk in DMCs.|
|Description of Outcome||Enhanced knowledge of risk-sensitive land use planning and development among participating DMCs|
|Progress Toward Outcome|
|Description of Project Outputs||
A guide and sector specific notes on integrating risk-sensitive land use management into development projects and related training program
Case studies of existing and potential incentives for implementing DRR and adaptation measures
A core set of urban resilience indicators
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design|
|During Project Implementation|
|Consulting Services||The TA will utilize 18.5 person-months of consultancy inputs to be provided by six international consultants. The consultants will be engaged through a firm, in accordance with ADB's Guidlines on the Use of Consultants. Given the importance, complexity, and impact of the project, the quality-and-cost-based selection method, based on a quality-to-cost ratio of 80:20, and simplified technical proposals will be used.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Sinha Roy, Arghya|
|Responsible ADB Department||Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||SDGG|
Asian Development Bank
6 ADB Avenue,
Mandaluyong City 1550, Philippines
|Concept Clearance||29 Sep 2011|
|Approval||24 Nov 2011|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||13 Oct 2011|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|24 Nov 2011||-||24 Nov 2011||31 Dec 2013||30 Nov 2015||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|700,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||700,000.00||24 Nov 2011||678,232.04|
Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.
The Public Communications Policy (PCP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.
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|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Addressing Disaster Risk through Improved Indicators and Land Use Management: Technical Assistance Completion Report||Completion Reports||Apr 2016|
Safeguard Documents See also: Safeguards
Safeguard documents provided at the time of project/facility approval may also be found in the list of linked documents provided with the Report and Recommendation of the President.
None currently available.
Evaluation Documents See also: Independent Evaluation
None currently available.
|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Incentives for Reducing Disaster Risk in Urban Areas||Reports||Jun 2016|
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