Tajikistan: Building Capacity for Climate Resilience

Sovereign Project | 45436-001


This TA will enhance planning capacity for climate change adaptation at national and local levels, and within vulnerable sectors and vulnerable population groups. The TA will:

- Establish a climate modeling facility in the national hydrometeorological agency

- Develop climate change projections (dynamical downscaling) and climate impact assessments on water resources, energy, agriculture, transport and social development

- Introduce climate change science modules in one university academic curriculum

- Train government officials of which 30% women on climate change risk management,

- Support a process to formulate national and local adaptation plans

- Develop a knowledge management system to collate and disseminate data and information on climate change

- Establish a small grant facility to support adaptation initiatives in local communities

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Project Name Building Capacity for Climate Resilience
Project Number 45436-001
Country Tajikistan
Project Status Approved
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Technical Assistance
Source of Funding / Amount
TA 8090-TAJ: Building Capacity for Climate Resilience
Strategic Climate Fund US$ 6.00 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Governance and capacity development
Sector / Subsector

Agriculture, natural resources and rural development - Agricultural policy, institutional and capacity development - Irrigation

Education - Secondary

Energy - Energy sector development and institutional reform

Transport - Road transport (non-urban)

Water and other urban infrastructure and services - Urban water supply

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Gender equity

This TA will enhance planning capacity for climate change adaptation at national and local levels, and within vulnerable sectors and vulnerable population groups. The TA will:

- Establish a climate modeling facility in the national hydrometeorological agency

- Develop climate change projections (dynamical downscaling) and climate impact assessments on water resources, energy, agriculture, transport and social development

- Introduce climate change science modules in one university academic curriculum

- Train government officials of which 30% women on climate change risk management,

- Support a process to formulate national and local adaptation plans

- Develop a knowledge management system to collate and disseminate data and information on climate change

- Establish a small grant facility to support adaptation initiatives in local communities

- Develop and implement a monitoring, reporting and evaluation system to monitor progress and result under the PPCR

- Establish a national implementing entity to leverage funds for and implement adaptation projects.

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Tajikistan is one of the most vulnerable countries to the adverse effects of climate change in Central Asia , . Recognizing the country's high vulnerability to climate change, Tajikistan was chosen as one of the nine participating countries to the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience (PPCR). The Expert Group established under the PPCR to select developing countries from around the world ranked Tajikistan very high for its vulnerability to climate-induced disasters based on indicators that were strongly related to mortality and economic losses inferred from climate-related disasters. The capacity of institutions, communities and individuals to adapt to climate change was rated very low, based on the Human Development Index and other indicators strongly related to water and food security.

A recent study carried out by ADB and the Government of Tajikistan under the Technical Assistance TA7599 in the context of the PPCR shows that climate variability and extreme events are already a danger for Tajikistan. Higher temperatures and decreased snowfall experienced over the last few decades have affected droughts, avalanches, landslides, rockfalls and violent winds routinely destroy land, crops and infrastructure and, in the worst cases, lives. Future climate change will lead to further losses. Projected rise in temperature of up to 2o C by 2050 will result in glacial melt and early snow-melt leading to changes in the seasonality of runoff with consequent impacts on availability and stable supplies of water for agriculture, hydropower, and other uses including human consumption. Rise in temperature and changes in precipitation will increase the frequency of droughts, catastrophic flooding due to glacial lake outbursts, destabilizations of mountain slopes and more landslides and result in a progressive increase in economic losses and risk to the population, and reduce the ability of communities to move out of poverty. These adverse effects will be compounded by a projected 67% population growth over the 21st century and will exacerbate underlying socio-economic and environmental constraints (land degradation, crumbling infrastructure, increasing feminization of poverty, low debt sustainability and limited institutional capacity) that already threaten the sustainability of Tajikistan s economic, social and human development.

Recent assessments and consultations carried out under the PPCR shows that gaps in the understanding of climate risks combined with the limited capacity of individuals and institutions for adaptation prevent Tajikistan from effectively anticipate and manage climate change. The following constraints were identified in the assessments and the consultations:

a. Data and information on current climate variability, future climate change and its impacts on communities, infrastructure and ecosystems are inadequate to inform decision making. Inadequate equipment for data collection, limited resources to acquire and maintain equipment, inadequacy of technical staff capacity and salaries to retain trained staff hinder the ability of responsible agencies to generate, store and analyze climate data to produce information for decision makers. In addition, climate data are not readily disseminated to stakeholders. Whilst current initiatives are addressing the need to improve the infrastructure for data collection, the use of data for weather forecast and climate modeling is extremely limited. The quality of information on climate change is not sufficient to meet the need of decision makers at the national, sub-national, and local level. Access to climate information is inadequate to support the design of measures aimed at reducing the adverse effects of climate change on priority sectors such as water resource management, energy, rural development, transport, and health. Women's access to information about climate change risks and options for adapting to climate change is poor, and information is often provided in ways which are not appropriate for them. Data and information that already exist is not used for scientific research aimed at understanding weather and climate patterns. Education and training on how to use available data to local experts who are already involved in hydrological and meteorological measurements is not sufficient to provide a sustained skill pool for weather forecasting and modeling.

b. Climate change risks are not integrated in development plans. Development projects in key sectors (water, agriculture, physical infrastructure) do not consider climate change risks and there are no modalities to facilitate such transformational change in development planning. There exists moderate knowledge on climate change risk management practice in key government agencies, but very little exists in some ministries and departments, and at the district and local levels. Most public officials are unfamiliar with tools, such as climate proofing, screening, economic analysis of climate adaptation options and cost-benefit analysis required to prioritize and allocate budget to adaptation measures. Public awareness of climate change is increasing but it remains low in local government agencies, particularly amongst women . Both government and nongovernment organizations (NGOs) lack adequate skill pool to support the implementation of structural measures, i.e. physical construction to reduce or avoid possible impacts of hazards such as droughts and floods, and non structural measures such as building codes, land use planning laws, research, information resource and public awareness programs. As a result, development projects cannot be formulated with the necessary considerations for design and engineering features that are responsive to climate changes risks in the country. Overlapping mandates among different agencies, inadequate coordination, meager fund flows and weak resource allocation mechanisms are major impediments to effective climate change risks management. There are no clear strategies or plans with clear targets and sources of funding to deal with climate change risks. Existing policies and plans such as the National Development Strategy, the Poverty Reduction Strategy and the National Climate Change Plan do not bar action, but neither strategy clearly links climate change to key climate sensitive production sectors and poverty alleviation goals, nor does it identify adaptation measures and targets. Monitoring and evaluation of current climate change policies and projects are absent.

Impact Tajikistan is more resilient to climate variability and climate change.
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome National infrastructure development programs and policies incorporate safeguards to address the effects of climate change.
Progress Toward Outcome
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

1. Climate change information is available to multiple users.

2. Climate change risks are integrated into Tajikistan's development planning and implementation of development projects

3. Knowledge management systems for climate change are developed and applied

4. Develop the current PPCR Secretariat into a National Implementing Agency accredited by the Fund Board

5. Outputs from the PPCR are managed for results

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

Since September 2012, the TA has been providing financial support to PPCR Secretariat, which comprises three national consultants. The Secretariat is responsible for coordination and communications. It supports the PPCR national coordination mechanism, including the interministerial committee, the steering group and the technical experts group. The Secretariat regularly provide updates on PPCR events and contribute to disseminate the results of the PPCR investments nationally and internationally. More information is available at www.ppcr.tj. The 2013 PPCR Secretariat work plan and communication plan are available at http://www.ppcr.tj/documents.html

In May 2013, after a competitive bidding process, Abt and Associations (the consultants) signed a contract with ADB to support the implementation of the TA.

An Inception Report was submitted to the Government of Tajikistan and ADB in October 2013. Work Plans for outputs 1 to 5 are included in the Inception Report. An Inception Workshop was held on 27 February 2014 to discuss the findings in the Inception Report and further activities with concerned stakeholders.

Output 1. On 17-20 July 2013, the consultants hosted a Climate Modeling Workshop with the State Administration for Hydrometeorology (Hydromet) on optional models for the dynamical downscaling of global and regional climate circulation models. The workshop included an assessment of technical requirements to develop the climate change modeling facility. In January 2015, the Climate and Impact Modeling Advisory Group report was finalized, which provided recommendations for the training, procurement, and research workplan of the planned climate facility. This was supported in part by a stakeholder workshop and tri-partite meetings between the Advisory Group, Hydromet, and ADB in November 2014. Training and procurement is expected to commence shortly. Three rooms have been renovated in Hydromet to house the climate facility. The climate change curicullum has been implemented in several universities and one high school. The workplan and TORs for the climate data management system are being finalized, with the system expected to be running by the third quarter of 2016.

Output 2. An assessment of gaps in capacity for adaptation planning and the training needs is being carried out by the consultants in consultation with national stakeholders. Workshops for National Strategy on Climate Change Adaptation were held in November 2014, March 2015, and August 2015 which include discussions of selection for local vulnerable districts, and the identification and prioritisation of adaptation needs and investment options. These workshops will inform the development of a national strategy on climate change adaptation scheduled to be finalized by November 2015.

Output 3. An assessment of the technical requirements to develop and host a knowledge management system is being developed by the consultants in consultation with national stakeholders. The National Communication Strategy has been reviewed and finalized, and will be implemented shortly. Discussions are underway with a number of NGOs to implement the awareness campaigns. The PPCR website (www.ppcr.tj) has been recently remodeled, and as planned there is now a Tajik-language version. A quarterly electronic e-newsletter is being produced to inform key stakeholders and MDBs about the progress made by various PPCR projects.

Output 4. In June 2013, the Committee of Environmental Protection, in partnership with PPCR development partners, submitted to the Climate Investment Funds a workplan for developing baselines and targets for the PPCR results framework in 2013 and monitoring in subsequent years. In August 2013, the consultants facilitated consultations in Dushanbe with some government implementing agencies on the PPCR results indicators, proposed baselines, and targets. Further consultations are needed with government, civil society, and local government leaders and beneficiaries to build broad stakeholder support for agreed-upon and factually-consistent baselines and targets for monitoring results for the PPCR. An annual M&E report was submitted to CIF in June 2014 and subsequently in June 2015 in line with the updated reporting guidelines. This was being supported by a number of seminars and workshop, including a validation workshop planned for May 2015. A stock taking workshop held in Dushanbe on 5 May 2015 was conducted successfully, and the Mission received positive feedback from several project participants that it was a useful and important event to re-connect PPCR participants and re-energize coordination activities. A two-day M&E workshop for the capacity building of key participants of PPCR projects and other stakeholders is planned for November 2015.

Output 5. An initial assessment was conducted on the process required to establish a national implementing entity (NIE) in August 2013. A further initial assessment on the capacity levels and requirements for a short-list of candidate agencies for NIE accreditation under the Adaptation Fund was completed in 2014 and submitted to the Government in June 2015 for consideration. In August 2015, COEP was selected by the Government as the primary candidate as NIE under the Adaptation Fund.

Geographical Location
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design Consultations on the need for and the design of this technical assistance were conducted over two years and engaged over 200 stakeholders from government ministries (Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Economic Development, Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Water Resources and Land Reclamation, Committee of Environmental Protection, Committee of Emergency Situations, Committee of Women and Family Affairs), government agencies (State Hydrometeorological Services, Academy of Sciences), international organizations (AKDN, FAO, UNDP, UNICEF, WFP), donors (DFID, GIZ, EC, Swiss Cooperation, SIDA), civil society (Act Central Asia, ACTED, Christian Aid, OXFAM and a number of local NGOs) and communities living in the Pyanj and the Vashkh River Basins.
During Project Implementation

Consultations with different stakeholders groups are being held during the project implementation by the PPCR secretariat to ensure that stakeholders needs are captured in the capacity building activities. In 2013, the Secretariat participated in several civil society forums to present on the current progress of the PPCR. News releases, regular web updates and quarterly e-newsletters are some of the secretariat's knowledge sharing services.

A workshop on the technical requirements of a climate modeling facility (Output 1) was held in Dushanbe in June 2013.

Multistakehodler consultation on the proposed monitoring, reporting and evaluation framework for the Pilot Program for Climate Resilience in Tajikistan (Output 5) took place in Dushanbe in August 2013.

An Inception Workshop was held in Dushanbe in February 2014 to discuss findings in an Inception Report submitted in October 2013.

Business Opportunities
Consulting Services

The CDTA implementation started in September 2012 and will be completed in May 2013. ADB has recruited three national consultants for the PPCR Secretariat. ADB has recruited also Abt Associates (USA), in association with CLIMsystems (New Zealand) and Centre for Climate Change and Disaster Reduction (Tajikistan), for the implementation of the TA. The consulting team comprises international and national consultants:

Team Leader & Climate Change Specialist (international, 18 person-months)

Climate Modeling and Impact Assessment Specialist (international, 12 person-months)

Knowledge Management Specialist (international, 9 person-months)

Economist (international, 7 person-months)

Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist (international, 8 person-months)

Infrastructure Specialist (international, 8 person-months)

Financial Management and Procurement Specialist (international, 8 person-months)

Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist (national, 24 person-months)

Agriculture and Land Management Specialist (national, 48 person-months)

Water Resources Specialist (national, 48 person-months)

Energy and Transport Specialist (national, 48 person-months)

Climate Modeling Specialists (2 national, 96 person-months)

Education Specialist (national, 13 person-months)

Glaciologist (national, 6 person-months)

Public Participation and Social Development Specialist (national, 18 person-months)

Information Technology and Knowledge Management Specialist (national, 48 person-months)

Office Manager (national, 48 person-months)

Head of PPCR Secretariat (national, 48 person-months)

Communications Office of PPCR Secretariat (national, 48 person-months)

Senior Administrative Officer of PPCR Secretariat (national, 48 person-months)

Since the TA requires relatively new area of expertise and presents high level of complexity, careful selection with priority on quality was required and a quality based selection method (QBS) was used for engaging the consulting firm(s). Disbursements under the TA will be made in accordance with the Technical Assistance Disbursement Handbook (May 2010, as amended from time to time).

Procurement Procurement of source data, dedicated weather and climate models, software, hardware, computers, servers, videoconference facilities, photocopier, printers, digital camera, scanners, and leased vehicles is being made in accordance to ADB Procurement Guidelines (April 2010).
Responsible ADB Officer Nathan Rive
Responsible ADB Department Central and West Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Environment, Natural Resources & Agriculture Division, CWRD
Executing Agencies
State Meteorological Services
47 Shevchenko street,Dushanbe Tajikistan
Committee for Environmental Protection
Talbak Salimov, Chair, Committee of Environmental Protection
5/1 Shamsi Street, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Concept Clearance 16 Jan 2012
Fact Finding -
Approval 05 Jun 2012
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 14 Sep 2015

TA 8090-TAJ

Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
05 Jun 2012 03 Jul 2012 03 Jul 2012 31 Aug 2016 13 May 2017 -
Financing Plan/TA Utilization Cumulative Disbursements
ADB Cofinancing Counterpart Total Date Amount
Gov Beneficiaries Project Sponsor Others
0.00 6,000,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6,000,000.00 05 Jun 2012 1,167,502.12

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