Samoa: Community Sanitation Project

Sovereign Project | 45520-001

Summary

The project's overall goal is to give vulnerable households sustainable access to better sanitation in targeted regions of Samoa. The vast majority of Samoan households rely for their sanitation services on non-functioning, leaking septic tanks. This sanitation infrastructure pollutes groundwater and urban streams, damages such aquatic ecosystems as mangroves and coastal areas, and adversely impacts the residents' health. Samoa has the highest reported incidence of typhoid of all the Asian Development Bank's Pacific developing member countries. Typhoid periodically reaches epidemic levels and is especially prevalent in poor households in low-lying settlements in urban Apia, the capital city. The rates of diarrheal diseases are also high. The project will help improve public and environmental health in the participating regions. It will establish and pilot an innovative delivery method and institutional arrangements for providing subsidized sanitation infrastructure to low-income households.

Latest Project Documents

Consulting Notices

See also: CMS

No notices are currently available for this project.

Procurement Notices

See also: Operational Procurement

No notices are currently available for this project.

Procurement Documents

Title Document Date
Community Sanitation Project Oct 2013

Project Data Sheets (PDS) contain summary information on the project or program. Because the PDS is a work in progress, some information may not be included in its initial version but will be added as it becomes available. Information about proposed projects is tentative and indicative.

The Public Communications Policy (PCP) recognizes that transparency and accountability are essential to development effectiveness. It establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced.

The Accountability Mechanism provides a forum where people adversely affected by ADB-assisted projects can voice and seek solutions to their problems and report alleged noncompliance of ADB's operational policies and procedures.

In preparing any country program or strategy, financing any project, or by making any designation of, or reference to, a particular territory or geographic area in this document, the Asian Development Bank does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.

Project Name Community Sanitation Project
Project Number 45520-001
Country Samoa
Project Status Approved
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Grant
Source of Funding / Amount
Grant 9166-SAM: Community Sanitation Project
Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction US$ 2.00 million
Strategic Agendas Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Partnerships
Sector / Subsector Water and other urban infrastructure and services - Water supply and sanitation
Gender Equity and Mainstreaming Some gender elements
Description

The project's overall goal is to give vulnerable households sustainable access to better sanitation in targeted regions of Samoa. The vast majority of Samoan households rely for their sanitation services on non-functioning, leaking septic tanks. This sanitation infrastructure pollutes groundwater and urban streams, damages such aquatic ecosystems as mangroves and coastal areas, and adversely impacts the residents' health. Samoa has the highest reported incidence of typhoid of all the Asian Development Bank's Pacific developing member countries. Typhoid periodically reaches epidemic levels and is especially prevalent in poor households in low-lying settlements in urban Apia, the capital city. The rates of diarrheal diseases are also high. The project will help improve public and environmental health in the participating regions. It will establish and pilot an innovative delivery method and institutional arrangements for providing subsidized sanitation infrastructure to low-income households. The project will establish a foundation to enable the government to establish and expand a national sanitation scheme that will help households replace and maintain their on-site sanitation infrastructure. The scheme's sustainability will be ensured by increasing the government's capacity to enforce existing health and environmental regulations and to monitor sanitation assets and water quality.

Component A:

The project will make households more aware of the importance of properly functioning septic tanks, how they are built and maintained, and the health implications of poor maintenance. Public awareness campaigns will target all of the approximately 15,000 households in the three pilot regions, whether they are project participants or not. These campaigns will be coordinated with ongoing sanitation and hygiene awareness campaigns and build on them, making use of materials that have been accepted by the community. The results of the awareness efforts will be monitored through existing Ministry of Women, Community, and Social Development (MWCSD) monthly household surveys.

The project's public awareness activities will:

(i) advertise the pilot scheme to encourage households from selected villages to participate;

(ii) inform participating households about pilot scheme procedures;

(iii) inform participating households in layman's terms about how septic tanks are constructed, operated, and maintained;

(iv) inform the general public about the adverse effects on human health and waterways of leaking septic tanks (or the absence of appropriate on-site sanitation infrastructure altogether), the consequences of not regularly emptying septic tanks (usually every 3-5 years), and the connection to hygiene practices;

(v) inform participating households about maintenance monitoring and enforcement procedures to encourage them to carry out regular maintenance of their sanitation infrastructure and avoid penalties; and

(vi) inform participating households about potential financing sources to help cover their cash contributions, if applicable.

Component B:

The project will make households more aware of the importance of properly functioning septic tanks, how they are built and maintained, and the health implications of poor maintenance. Public awareness campaigns will target all of the approximately 15,000 households in the three pilot regions, whether they are project participants or not. These campaigns will be coordinated with ongoing sanitation and hygiene awareness campaigns and build on them, making use of materials that have been accepted by the community. The results of the awareness efforts will be monitored through existing Ministry of Women, Community, and Social Development (MWCSD) monthly household surveys.

The project's public awareness activities will

(i) advertise the pilot scheme to encourage households from selected villages to participate;

(ii) inform participating households about pilot scheme procedures;

(iii) inform participating households in layman's terms about how septic tanks are constructed, operated, and maintained;

(iv) inform the general public about the adverse effects on human health and waterways of leaking septic tanks (or the absence of appropriate on-site sanitation infrastructure altogether), the consequences of not regularly emptying septic tanks (usually every 3-5 years), and the connection to hygiene practices;

(v) inform participating households about maintenance monitoring and enforcement procedures to encourage them to carry out regular maintenance of their sanitation infrastructure and avoid penalties; and

(vi) inform participating households about potential financing sources to help cover their cash contributions, if applicable.

Component C:

The pilot will establish the structures and procedures needed and train the necessary skilled personnel to implement the sanitation scheme across the rest of Samoa after the pilot is complete. Training by individual consultants in construction supervision, septic tank inspections, asset management, and water quality testing will give sanitation officials the ability to manage the scheme after the pilot ends. The project will also build capacity by guiding the government's leadership in the day-to-day management of the pilot, by on-the-job coaching by the two full-time individual consultants, and by training implementing agency staff in ADB disbursement procedures and financial management.

PUMA and the MWTI will carry out random inspections of septic tanks in both project and nonproject households in participating villages and throughout the pilot regions to monitor sanitation assets and enforce acts and regulations. PUMA will aim to carry out 1,000 inspections per year during 2014-2016. The imposition of fines when septic tanks fail these inspections will incentivize households to replace or upgrade their on-site sanitation system themselves (if they can afford to) and to maintain properly constructed septic tanks through minor repairs and by emptying them regularly and disposing of the contents properly. The project will provide participating households with financial support for one maintenance cycle so that they will learn routine maintenance procedures and will have the know-how required to maintain their new septic tanks after the project ends. The project will help the government to evaluate the pilot's implementation

Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

Poor hygiene practices and septage pooling have major adverse health impacts in populated areas, including a high incidence of typhoid and diarrheal diseases. Leaking septic tanks also contaminate reefs and marine life. The leaks from improperly designed and constructed and poorly maintained tanks occur for several reasons: minimal enforcement of septic tank design standards, poor construction methods, and lack of public awareness of properseptic tank construction and maintenance requirements. The vast majority of households in Samoa rely on non-functioning septic tanks that are beyond repair. These septic tanks present no visible problems to households and, because they leak, do not seem to need to be emptied. Households are not familiar with maintenance needs and procedures or used to shouldering maintenance costs. Because poor sanitation practices have been the norm for so

long, it is difficult to incentivize households to improve their sanitation systems, even though the septic tank of almost every household is not functioning and needs to be replaced or

rehabilitated.

The government's poverty reduction strategy (Strategy for the Development of Samoa 2008-2012) and ADB's 2008-2012 country partnership strategy (CPS) for Samoas prioritize the sanitation sector to improve environmental and public health conditions. Both strategies recognize the importance of improving sanitation infrastructure and increasing access to sanitation services to reduce poverty and achieving sanitation-related Millennium Development Goals. Both strategies aim to improve the physical infrastructure for sanitation and the abiiity of the government and the private sector to deliver sanitation services.

To guide sanitation investments and improve wastewater systems and management in Samoa, the government approved the 2009 National Sanitation Policy and prepared the 201 1

National Sanitation Masterplan. The plan established new septic tank construction standards for inclusion in the NationalBuilding Code; recommended appropriate improved sanitation systems; and proposed improvements to the processes for granting development consent, granting building permits, supervising construction, licensing service operators, and collecting sanitation data. To prepare the master plan, a national sanitati'sn survey was undertaken to gauge the state of sanitation in urban and rural households, the willingness and ability of households to pay for sanitation services, and household awareness of sanitation issues. The survey found that households would be willing and, able to pay upto 10% of the approximately $4,000 construction cost of a septic tank. Consultations revealed that this contribution would need to be in-kind for many households, particularly rural ones. The project's subsidy percentages reflect this level of willingness and ability to pay and the project will allow in-kind contributions from all participating households. Maintenance costs of about $100 every 3 to 5 pears were found to be affordable for most households. A scheme to improve on-site sanitation was identified as a priority in the 2009 National Sanitation Policy and in the rolling three-year medium-term expenditure framework for Samoa's water sector.

Impact Improved public and environmental health in targeted areas
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Poor households in targeted areas have sustainable access to improved sanitation
Progress Toward Outcome After some initial delays, project implementation has picked up pace and with the current momentum maintained, all civil works are expected to be completed by early 2016 against a closing date of January 2017. All individual consultants are on board. First phase civil works started in December 2014. BER for the second phase of works was submitted to ADB in late December 2014 and ADB's no objection provided in January 2015. A contract is expected to be finalised in MArch 2015 for works to start in April 2015 and finish by September 2015. Advertise for the 3rd and final package are expected to go out before end of March 2015.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

Targeted sanitation scheme established and operational

Septic tanks and other improved sanitation systems constructed and maintained

Community awareness of sanitation, hygiene, and septic tank maintenance raised

Sanitation scheme is financially and technically sustainable

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

Implementation works for package 1 covering 190 households has already started after the civil works contract was signed on 11 Nov 2014 and the contractors order of the first batch of plastic septic tanks arrived on 10 Dec 2014. ADB no objection for Package 2 covering 170 households was provided in January 2015. A contract award is likely March 2015. For package 3, consultations in the targeted villages are still continuing and a contract award is projected for June 2015.

Community awareness and consultation are undertaken at different stages of project imlementation.

Geographical Location
Safeguard Categories
Environment B
Involuntary Resettlement C
Indigenous Peoples C
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects

Project activities will cover three coastal regions of Samoa - urban Apia, the northeast and northwest.

The project will improve receiving environment conditions, particularly during the dry season. Water quality in open village stormwater drains, nearby streams and along the coastal foreshore should improve in the dry season as currently leaking septage from the worst performing systems will be adequately treated through anaerobic action in the septic tank and ground infiltration. Partly treated and untreated septage from these households should not reach receiving waterbodies, thereby removing this source of pathogens, decreasing nutrient enrichment and in turn improving the health of animal and marine life. Other village amenity values should also improve, including a decrease in odors.

In villages on flood-prone land the improvement in environmental conditions during the wet season may be small as the new septic systems will be subjected to inundation and the release of partly treated sewage. It is worth noting that septic tanks with sealed lids that are flooded should only release a limited amount of septage due to small diameter inflow and outflow pipes. The secondary treatment of effluent by infiltration from the absorption trench in areas with high water table or flooded is likely to be less than optimum due to inadequate soil infiltration, resulting in partly treated spetage seeping onto the ground surface or reaching nearby water bodies.

A broader improvement to the local environment should also result from the project awareness program that will be delivered to approximately 15,000 households in the 3 target regions. It is hoped that households replacing their sanitation systems will construct better systems and that more regular de-sludging of septic tanks will occur.

Grant Reviews:

ADB will conduct a project performance review mission together with the EA twice annually to review the compliance of ADB safeguard policies.

Involuntary Resettlement n/a
Indigenous Peoples n/a
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design

The project is innovative because the delivery method is integrated within existing government structures and procedures. The government's Sanitation Technical Subsector Committee (STC) will provide project implementation advice, as it does for other sanitation sector projects. 7 Staff from PUMA, the implementing agency, will lead the implementation of the project as part of their regular responsibilities.

The project will help STC members fulfill their sanitation sector mandates. It will provide support to the MWTI to supervise septic tank construction, to PUMA to carry out septic tank inspections, and to the MOH to monitor water quality. Staff from these agencies will not only be trained in these skills but will also carry out their tasks during the pilot and thereby gain valuable hands-on experience in what will remain their responsibilities after the project ends. The government will evaluate the implementation of the pilot as part of its plan to expand the pilot sanitation scheme nationally.

During Project Implementation

Government and community stakeholders will lead the implementation of the project. The STC will advise the implementing agency on project implementation and coordinate the inputs required of the participating government agencies.

The public awareness campaign at the start of the project will disseminate information about the project, eligibility criteria, and subsidy levels in pilot villages and thus generate demand (see component B). Based on this information, each household will decide whether it wants to apply to participate in the scheme. Each completed application will be signed by the local village chief, village mayor, and/or the government liaison officer to verify its information.

Village women's committees will be instrumental in encouraging households to participate and in monitoring septic tank maintenance through their regular surveys.

Responsible ADB Officer Vijay Narayan
Responsible ADB Department Pacific Department
Responsible ADB Division Pacific Subregional Office in Suva, Fiji
Executing Agencies
Ministry of FinanceV-TAGILIMA@TREASURY.GOV.WSMinistry of Finance
Government of Samoa
Private Bag, Apia, Samoa
Timetable
Concept Clearance 31 Mar 2011
Fact Finding 06 Jun 2011 to 10 Jun 2011
MRM -
Approval 31 Jul 2012
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 02 Mar 2015

Grant 9166-SAM

Milestones
Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
31 Jul 2012 29 Aug 2012 29 Aug 2012 31 Jan 2017 - -
Financing Plan Grant Utilization
Total (Amount in US$ million) Date ADB Others Net Percentage
Project Cost 2.00 Cumulative Contract Awards
ADB 0.00 31 Jul 2012 0.00 0.94 47%
Counterpart 0.00 Cumulative Disbursements
Cofinancing 2.00 31 Jul 2012 0.00 0.37 19%
Title Document Type Document Date
Community Sanitation Project Procurement Plans Oct 2013
Community Sanitation Project Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction Jul 2012

Safeguard Documents

See also: Safeguards
Title Document Type Document Date
Community Sanitation Project Initial Environmental Examination Nov 2011

Evaluation Documents

See also: Independent Evaluation

No documents found.


The Public Communications Policy (PCP) establishes the disclosure requirements for documents and information ADB produces or requires to be produced in its operations to facilitate stakeholder participation in ADB's decision-making. For more information, refer to the Safeguard Policy Statement, Operations Manual F1, and Operations Manual L3.

Requests for information may also be directed to the InfoUnit.