The proposed TA aims to assist the Government of the People's Republic of China in developing policies, strategies, and guidelines on the rehabilitation of uncontrolled landfills and municipal solid waste dump sites. This will be achieved by assisting the government to (i) develop technical guidelines on landfill remediation, including clean-up or containment, land reuse and re-development, and monitoring and supervision; and (ii) formulate recommendations for adjustments of financial, institutional and regulatory frameworks. The TA is consistent with the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) and will support implementation of the Master Plan for National Domestic Solid Waste Treatment Facilities Construction (2012-2015).
|Project Name||Management of Uncontrolled Landfills|
|Country||China, People's Republic of
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Water and other urban infrastructure and services / Urban solid waste management
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming|
|Description||The proposed TA aims to assist the Government of the People's Republic of China in developing policies, strategies, and guidelines on the rehabilitation of uncontrolled landfills and municipal solid waste dump sites. This will be achieved by assisting the government to (i) develop technical guidelines on landfill remediation, including clean-up or containment, land reuse and re-development, and monitoring and supervision; and (ii) formulate recommendations for adjustments of financial, institutional and regulatory frameworks. The TA is consistent with the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011-2015) and will support implementation of the Master Plan for National Domestic Solid Waste Treatment Facilities Construction (2012-2015).|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
The continuous economic growth of the PRC since the start of its economic reforms in 1978 has been accompanied by rapid urbanization. The urban population grew from 160 million in 1975 to about 670 million in 2010. Increased urbanization will remain an essential pillar supporting future growth and development in the PRC, but it also poses a variety of environmental challenges. A major challenge is the rapid increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) due to population growth and increasing per capita resource consumption. No country has ever experienced as large or as fast an increase in solid waste quantities as the PRC faced in the last 25 years, increasing at around 4% per annum. In 2010, about 157 million tons of MSW was generated (about 25% of the world's solid waste).
Formal management of solid waste in the PRC did not start until the late 1980s. Prior to the 8th Five-Year Plan (FYP, 1991-1995), solid waste was only managed informally, with most of MSW disposed in dumps either without any or with very limited engineering standards. This situation has improved greatly since 1995, after which sanitary waste disposal capacities were significantly increased in response to the enactment of the first legislation on solid waste management, the Act of Prevention and Control of Solid Waste Pollution to the Environment (1995). During the period of the 9th FYP (1996-2000), the percentage of sanitary disposal of MSW increased from 40% to 50%. Sanitary disposal of solid waste has remained an important target of subsequent FYPs. By the end of the 11th FYP period (2006-2010), the cities' and counties' capacity to collect and remove MSW had reached 221 million tons per year. However, this was insufficient to keep up with the MSW quantities produced, and the proportion of MSW safely disposed was only 64% by the end of 2010. More than 60 million tons per annum of MSW are not adequately disposed of and end up in open dump sites and uncontrolled landfills.
The continuous disposal of solid waste in uncontrolled landfills in the last 40 years has created serious environmental concerns. The government estimates that several thousand uncontrolled landfills exist in or around major cities and towns in the PRC. These dump sites occupy land resources, hinder urban development, lead to groundwater and soil contamination, and produce greenhouse gases and toxic air emissions, contributing to climate change. They also significantly affect community health and safety, providing breeding grounds for rats and other disease spreading vectors.
The government is aware of the problems and risks associated with current waste disposal practices and the legacy of uncontrolled landfills. In an effort to combat these problems, the government has passed laws to protect the environment from landfill contamination. The problem is also prominently addressed in the Master Plan for National Domestic Solid Waste Treatment Facilities Construction (2012-2015) under the 12th FYP (2011-2015). Among other tasks, the plan targets rehabilitation and securing of 1882 uncontrolled landfills and dump sites in or around major cities and towns, with a total investment of CNY21.1 billion until 2015. The plan prioritizes rehabilitation of sites which hinder urban development at the urban-rural fringe, and sites that represent an important risk to water resources. The plan also highlights the need to develop solutions to uncontrolled landfill rehabilitation that take into account local conditions, capacities and needs. However, the technical knowledge to implement these and the necessary financial, institutional and regulatory frameworks are still underdeveloped in the PRC.
To address this issue and work towards achieving the goals set under the Master Plan, the government requested TA to strengthen the PRC's capacity in managing uncontrolled landfills. The TA has been prepared based on extensive consultations with the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (MOHURD) and key stakeholders. MOHURD will coordinate this initiative along with parallel and relevant activities to be undertaken under the Master Plan.
|Impact||Strengthened policy and regulatory frameworks and improved institutional capacity to rehabilitate uncontrolled landfills for municipal solid waste disposal|
|Description of Outcome||Agreed recommendations and guidelines to improve the management of uncontrolled landfills for MSW disposal|
|Progress Toward Outcome|
|Description of Project Outputs||
1. A review of uncontrolled landfill management in the PRC
2. Technical guidelines for the remediation of uncontrolled landfills are completed
3. Recommendations made for a national framework for managing uncontrolled landfills
4. Strategy for disseminating TA findings developed
|Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)||Consulting firm (ESD Asia Limited) commenced its services on 1 April 2013. The TA completion date was extended until 30 September 2014. Three additional experts were added to the team without additional cost to do new tasks beyond the original scope of work per consultation with the stakeholders. A contract variation was issued with the addition of 1.5 person-months under the consulting firm contract for Environmental Management Plan Specialist. An interim workshop was held in March 2014, and an international study tour was undertaken in June 2014. A final workshop was held in mid-September 2014. All activities under the TA have been completed.|
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||The TA has been conceptualized in close cooperation with the government, MOHURD, and related agencies. Consultations were held with international and national experts.|
|During Project Implementation||An inception, interim, and final workshops have been held where ample consultations with the stakeholders have taken place.|
The TA will finance consulting services, workshops, training, field work and survey costs. Consulting services totaling 32 person-months (6 person-months of international and 26 person-months of national) will be required. The consultants will provide expertise in landfill remediation, contaminated site clean-up, solid waste management and reuse, environmental management, urban planning, environment economics and finance, and environment legislative and institutional aspects.
The consultants will be engaged through a firm according to ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2010, as amended from time to time) using quality- and cost-based selection criteria (with a quality/cost weighing rate of 90:10) and simplified technical proposal procedures.
|Procurement||The TA equipment will be procured by the consultants according to ADB's Procurement Guidelines (2010, as amended from time to time) and transferred to MOHURD upon completion of the TA. The proceeds of the TA will be disbursed in accordance with ADB's Technical Assistance Disbursement Handbook (2010, as amended from time to time). TA disbursement will be handled by ADB.|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Ressano Garcia, Antonio|
|Responsible ADB Department||East Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Urban and Social Sectors Division, EARD|
Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development
9 San Li He Road, Haidian District
People's Republic of China
|Concept Clearance||01 Aug 2012|
|Fact Finding||25 Jun 2012 to 27 Jun 2012|
|Approval||17 Sep 2012|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||30 Sep 2014|
|Approval||Signing Date||Effectivity Date||Closing|
|17 Sep 2012||12 Oct 2012||12 Oct 2012||28 Feb 2014||30 Sep 2014||-|
|Financing Plan/TA Utilization||Cumulative Disbursements|
|500,000.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||500,000.00||17 Sep 2012||489,221.64|
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|Title||Document Type||Document Date|
|Management of Uncontrolled Landfills: Technical Assistance Completion Report||TA Completion Reports||Aug 2015|
|Management of Uncontrolled Landfills||Technical Assistance Reports||Sep 2012|
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