The expected impact of the project will be sustained economic development in Chaonan District. The outcome of the project will be improved and equitable water supply services inclusive of urban and rural residents in Chaonan District. The project will include four outputs: (i) improved water resources protection, (ii) inclusive urban and rural water supply system, (iii) increased awareness on environment and sanitation, and (iv) strengthened institutional and staff capacity.
Improved water resources protection. This output will support (i) reforestation around the three major reservoir areas in the district; (ii) research on pollution prevention and control measures in the reservoir areas; and (iii) pilot programs on solid waste collection and treatment, and nonpoint source pollution control.
Inclusive urban and rural water supply system. This output will support (i) the expansion of the capacity of two water supply plants (Quifeng and Jinxi) from 110,000 cubic meters per day to 182,000 cubic meters per day; (ii) the construction of the Longxi water supply plant with a capacity of 100,000 cubic meters per day; (iii) rehabilitation and newly installation of water delivery and distribution pipelines, including an integrated system connecting the three water supply systems; (iv) construction of an operational center for the integrated water supply system; and (v) establishment of about 40 small-scale water supply facilities for rural residents in hilly areas.
Increased awareness on environment and sanitation. This output will support the development of education and training materials for schools, training of school teachers, public awareness campaign, training equipment, and media communication.
Strengthened institutional and staff capacity. This output will (i) provide training, workshops, and study tours; (ii) establish a water quality monitoring center; (iii) develop a monitoring and regulatory system for dam safety and reservoir operations; and (iv) formulate two plans on water resources development and management, and pollution control; and (v) establish a proper operational model for the water supply company aligned to the new integrated water supply system.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
The project will help protect water resources and improve water security in Chaonan District, Shantou Municipality, Guangdong Province. The project will improve water supply for the district residents by integrating urban-rural water supply systems and reducing water losses. It will also support watershed management, water quality monitoring, and public awareness building to protect water resources from pollution.
Chaonan District is a county-level administrative division of Shantou Municipality, Guangdong Province. About 30 kilometers away from the Shantou city center, Chaonan District has a population of about 1.33 million spreading over about 600 square kilometers, of which 1.13 million are rural residents. Chaonan District has been experiencing rapid economic growth since its establishment in 2003. However, due to its large rural population and less-developed industry and services, the district's economy and fiscal revenue fall far behind the developed regions in Guangdong Province. Its per capita gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010 was only CNY13,470 ($2,138), about 28.7% of the provincial average per capita GDP of CNY46,990 ($7,459); or about 45.0% of the national average per capita GDP of CNY29,940 ($4,752). The per capita annual Income of rural residents in 2010 is CNY4,503 ($715), lower than the national average of CNY 5,919 ($940) or only 57% of the provincial average of CNY7,890 ($1,253).
Chaonan District faces a great challenge of ensuring water security for its social and economic development due to (i) lack of adequate water treatment and supply facilities, (ii) weak institutional capacity, and (iii) water pollution in rivers and other water bodies around towns and villages in the district plain area. Current water supply capacity is about 135,000 cubic meters (m3) per day, which is far from meeting both the current and future demands for domestic and industrial uses in the district. The current water supply systems serve about 70% of the district populations (mainly urban residents in towns and rural households close to the towns), but cannot guarantee 24-hour services. Some water supply schemes can only supply water to users about three days a week in dry seasons. Such unreliable and inequitable water supply services have affected economic development and people's living standards in Chaonan District. The Chaonan district government (CDG) has established a water supply service target to cover 95% of its population by 2020.
There are three major district water supply systems, which source water mainly from nine small- and medium-sized reservoirs with a total design storage capacity of about 180 million m3. The water quality in these reservoirs is generally good (Class II), but soil erosion has been found in some catchment areas and eutrophication risk is increasing due to nonpoint source pollution in some reservoirs. The three water supply systems are not connected to each other and cannot supplement each other if one system is facing water shortage. An integrated water supply system to connect the three independent systems is urgently needed. Due to low technical standards and aging of the pipes, non-revenue water losses are as high as 50%, resulting in high water tariffs in some areas and reduced service coverage. Another problem is that rural residents in hilly areas, who are not connected to the water supply networks, suffer from low quality of drinking water because rural water treatment facilities apply simple sedimentation and filtration process without chlorination. It is estimated that about 293,000 rural residents in the district do not have adequate access to drinking water.
Weak institutional capacity for water resources management and service delivery is also a concern. The district currently lacks a water supply master plan, or a regulatory system for integrated water resources management. The CDG has recently established the Chaonan Water Supply Company, which will manage the integrated water supply system to be developed under the project. The company needs to be staffed with qualified professionals, and strengthen its capacity to provide better services to its clients. There is also a need to increase public awareness on water resources protection and environmental improvement to ensure the sustainability of the water supply and thus, economic development of Chaonan District.
The project design will incorporate lessons learned from the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the World Bank, and other donors' programs relating to water resources management, water supply and wastewater treatment, and urban-rural infrastructure development in the People's Republic of China (PRC). The project will also seek opportunities for private-public partnership. The project is expected to demonstrate the following aspects which can be replicated in other regions of Guangdong Province and the PRC: (i) inclusive and equitable water supply services for both urban and rural residents; (ii) integrated water resources protection and management at local level; and (iii) stronger water utility performance by reducing non-revenue water.
The project is consistent with the government's 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015), which aims to promote equitable urbanization, balanced regional growth, and coordinated urban-rural development. The project is in line with ADB's strategic priorities which support urban and rural infrastructure and environmental improvement. It supports ADB's Water Operational Plan, 2011-2020 for increasing coverage and improved services for water supply and sanitation, and promoting integrated water resources management. The project is also in line with ADB's country partnership strategy, 2012-2015 for the PRC which suppoprts the government's goal of building a harmonious society by (i) addressing the rising income inequalilty and the widening regional disparities, and (ii) promoting environmentally sustainable development.