The proposed SSTA on Women-Led Sanitation: Driving Change through ADB CSO Partnerships will provide a deeper understanding of development outcomes resulting from enhanced local participatory delivery models for community-led sanitation management (linking environmental sanitation and public health) and the sustainability of infrastructure investments. It will also assess the opportunities for enhancing ADB-CSO cooperation in supporting ADB's sanitation investments throughout the Asia-Pacific region. It will be developed on the basis that one solution does not fit each and every country.
The pilot work initiatives will (i) promote practical solutions featuring good practices and lessons learned from the region, (ii) analyze the role women and men in driving this change in sustainable sanitation and better hygiene practices, and (iii) identify innovative collaboration and partnership opportunities to support the sanitation sub-sector.
The impact of the TA is improved planning, design, and implementation of ADB's rural sanitation projects. This impact will contribute to the achievement of ADB's Strategy 2020 for the water supply and sanitation sector, through more focused interventions, to achieve the MDG targets for the sector and to address the needs of the rural poor and women.
The outcome will be increased ADB-CSO-DMC collaborations and partnerships on ADB rural sanitation projects.
Outputs will include: (i) Stakeholder assessments, participation plans and work planning; (ii) Data collection, analyses and identification of pilot projects (sex-disaggregated data will be collected): (iii) Development of pilot activities; (iv) Participation of stakeholders and knowledge generation; and (v) Knowledge products launch and dissemination.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
Millennium development goal 7, target 10, calls for halving, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. In ADB's developing member countries (DMCs) progress towards achieving the sanitation target has fallen behind, thereby hindering inclusive growth.
The poor performance of the rural sanitation sub-sector in many of ADB's DMCs poses great inconveniences and health risk for whole communities, but often with the greatest burden on women and girls. Women continue to suffer the indignity of having to practice open defecation, risking health and safety. Women are the main users, providers, and managers of water in rural households and are also the guardians of household hygiene carrying the burden of protecting the family against hygiene-related diseases.
CSOs have favored community behavior change approaches to water supply and sanitation support including for example the use of the innovative Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS ) approach of promoting sanitation improvement through community leadership without any direct infrastructure subsidies. ADB has also used CLTS, and/or modified CLTS, behavior changing approaches in water and sanitation projects. Key findings from a recent UNICEF evaluation showed that CLTS (i) is effective but generally in the dry season, (ii) promotes behavior change, and (iii) contributes to institutional capacity building. Often ADB incorporates sanitation and hygiene messages into its community mobilization activities opting to employ CLTS hybrid approaches. CLTS is mostly gender-neutral, and a number of CLTS evaluations have recommended a stronger emphasis on gender in order to promote the sustainability of the open defecation free (ODF) status achieved through CLTS. CLTS and ODF approaches are however not always the most effective option as country and local conditions affect the appropriate approach chosen for project design and implementation.
Lessons drawn from ADB rural water and sanitation assessments suggest increased support to strengthen project staff in community outreach activities focused on effective behavior change linked to water management and sanitation practices is required. Reviews emphasize the benefits of decentralization and deconcentration processes by strengthening CSO local government partnerships to support activities at the community, village, and household levels.
ADB's Country Operations Business Plan (COBP) describes the business plan within the country partnership cooperation strategy, including grants and projects in the pipeline. Based on available data a comparison between COBP sanitation allocations, country DMC trends in rural sanitation investments and poverty levels will be undertaken. The TA will identify the potential for increasing rural sanitation projects and scaling up ADB-CSO partnering opportunities under the COBP.
The TA aims to develop a framework for creating strategic partnerships with civil society organizations (CSO) to address urgent sanitation scale-up requirements, to generate additional funds (or synergies of operations) with CSOs and to improve ADB's approach and activities in sanitation-related areas through incorporating CSOs knowledge (e.g., hygiene promotion, community mobilization, etc.) into ADB operations.