The TA seeks to demonstrate climate resilient green growth options in critical watersheds in the lower Marikina river basin, Camarines Sur and Davao Oriental and strengthen the capacity of local government units (LGUs) to mainstream climate change concerns into development planning. Priority is given to watersheds because of their role as water support system' for both upstream and downstream communities such as domestic water consumers, irrigation water users, and hydropower companies. The watersheds are chosen based on their (i) high bio-physical vulnerability to climate change; (ii) high levels of urban poverty and population density with settlements in vulnerable locations; and (iii) high demonstration potential for mainstreaming climate resilience and green growth in local development at both policy and operational levels. The TA will create a green growth road map for three critical watersheds by considering five dimensions (i) economic development; (ii) resilience to climate change; (iii) biodiversity, ecosystems and social development; (iv) GHG emissions; and (v) poverty alleviation and deliver the following four outputs.
Output 1: Collection of baseline information, and assessment of vulnerability to climate change. It involves stocktaking and vision setting for each watershed based on socio-economic profiling in consultations with stakeholders, including vulnerable communities, women and the private sector. It includes (i) baseline data collection through review of development plans and survey of local institutions, governments, and businesses; (ii) assessment of vulnerability to current and future impacts of climate change; (iii) economic valuation of natural resources and ecosystem services; and, (iv) preparation of GHG inventory following the global protocol for community-scale GHG emissions. Scenario setting will involve projection of future trends in usage of the natural resources and associated impacts.
Output 2: Identification, analysis, and prioritization of gender-responsive and locally appropriate adaptation and mitigation measures. An inventory of climate change actions with the most significant impact across the five dimensions relevant to green growth will be prepared. Based on feedback from stakeholders including vulnerable communities, women and the private sector on the feasibility of implementing such actions, a short list will be prepared and a cost-benefit analysis will be used to assess potential outcomes of proposed measures. Such efforts will lead to effective integration of climate change into comprehensive development plans, investment plans and disaster risk reduction and management plans of the participating LGUs.
Output 3: Selection of pilot demonstration areas and implementation of gender-equitable measures. Based on specific criteria, sites will be chosen to implement priority adaptation and GHG mitigation measures such as promoting renewable energy, forest rehabilitation and reforestation, community-based DRRM, and other measures focusing on sustainable management of natural resources. The primary focus of the TA will be on non-structural measures, which will not only enhance resilience of communities to climate change but also improve economic well-being. Community-based measures that improve resilience of women, children, and marginalized groups will be prioritized.
Output 4: Development of knowledge products and strengthening of stakeholder capacity. It involves (i) disseminating the TA findings to national and local governments, private sector and civil society through workshops, seminars and knowledge products; (ii) documenting the process for future reference of stakeholders in demonstrating successful climate actions in other areas; (iii) preparing local climate change action plans and guidelines for effective integration of climate concerns in development plans; and (iv) strengthening the capacity of key stakeholders including women in vulnerability assessment, economic analyses, and piloting of climate change actions. Such actions will strengthen capacity of LGUs and national agencies to implement climate actions beyond the TA period.
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
The Philippines is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The country is ranked highest in the world in terms of vulnerability to tropical cyclones and third in terms of the population's exposure to floods and droughts. Enhancing the climate resilience of the economy and the adaptive capacity of the populations is thus crucial for sustainable development. Climate change-induced economic losses are particularly high in urban and peri-urban areas largely because of the increasing fragility of urban ecosystems and the low adaptive capacity of communities. The need to develop ecologically stable and economically resilient urban areas has been recognized by many stakeholders but the concept has not been widely demonstrated.
To address climate change, the government enacted the Climate Change Act of 2009 (Republic Act 9729), which established the CCC as the government's sole policy-making body tasked with coordinating, monitoring, and evaluating programs and action plans related to climate change. The Climate Change Act provided the principles guiding the formulation of National Climate Change Action Plan 2011 2028 (NCCAP), which aims at gender-responsive and rights-based sustainable development through seven strategic priorities, namely: food security, water sufficiency, ecosystem and environmental stability, human security, climate-smart industries and services, sustainable energy, and capacity development.
Pursuing green growth and climate resilience strategies at LGU level can address both causes and consequences of climate change. Further, carbon intensity and resource efficiency are increasingly significant in determining economic competitiveness of LGUs. The capacity of LGUs to mainstream climate change concerns into development planning is limited however.
The TA fully supports the implementation of NCCAP and the Climate Change Act, which aims at mainstreaming climate change and disaster risk reduction and management into national, sector and local development plans and programs. It has strong links to the Philippines Development Plan 2011-2016 , especially with regard to goal 3 (enhanced resilience of natural systems and improved adaptive capacities of communities to cope with environmental hazards including climate-related risks) of the strategic framework for conservation, protection, and rehabilitation of the environment and natural resources. The TA has robust linkage to the ADB Country Partnership Strategy 2011-2016 and its thematic paper on climate change and disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM), which recognizes the need to increase the resilience to climate change and natural disasters while harnessing opportunities for greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. In addition to contributing to the objective of strengthening the institutional capacity, the TA closely aligns with ADB's Strategy 2020, Southeast Asia Department's climate change implementation plan, ADB's Water for All policy, ADB's Water Operational Plan 2011-2020, and various sector assessments, strategies, and road maps in terms of increasing resilience to climate stresses (agriculture and natural resources sector), promoting use of renewable energy (energy sector), and enhancing water sanitation through effective waste management (urban development sector).
The TA builds on vulnerability assessment methodologies developed under ADB-funded regional TA on adaptation and DRRM projects undertaken in Manila and other areas. It will promote synergies with ADB lending programs such as the Integrated Natural Resources and Environmental Management project and benefit from other climate change projects funded by the German Agency for International Cooperation, the Global Green Growth Institute, the Australian Agency for International Development, the United States Agency for International Development and the United Nations Development Program in terms of exchange of relevant datasets and information on good practices for green growth and climate resilience.