Pakistan: Support for Efficient Structuring of Public-Private Partnership in Punjab and Sindh Provinces

Sovereign Project | 47223-001 Status: Closed


The TA will strengthen fiscal and environmental risk management framework and systems for PPPs in Sindh and Punjab provinces, and identify the credit enhancement mechanisms that can make provincial PPP projects more viable for investors and financiers without unduly burdening provincial finances.

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Project Name Support for Efficient Structuring of Public-Private Partnership in Punjab and Sindh Provinces
Project Number 47223-001
Country Pakistan
Project Status Closed
Project Type / Modality of Assistance Technical Assistance
Source of Funding / Amount
TA 8443-PAK: Support for Efficient Structuring of Public-Private Partnership in Punjab and Sindh Provinces
Technical Assistance Special Fund US$ 225,000.00
Strategic Agendas Inclusive economic growth
Drivers of Change Governance and capacity development
Private sector development
Sector / Subsector

Public sector management - Public administration

Transport - Transport policies and institutional development

Water and other urban infrastructure and services - Urban policy, institutional and capacity development

Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Description The TA will strengthen fiscal and environmental risk management framework and systems for PPPs in Sindh and Punjab provinces, and identify the credit enhancement mechanisms that can make provincial PPP projects more viable for investors and financiers without unduly burdening provincial finances.
Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy

The infrastructure needs of Punjab and Sindh outpace the provincial fiscal space available for new investments. To address significant infrastructure requirements the two provinces have been exploring means of engaging the private sector more actively in infrastructure and public service provision through PPPs. A PPP structure involves a contractual arrangement between public and private entities through which the skills, assets, and/or financial resources of each of the public and private sectors are allocated in a complementary manner. A suitable PPP structure would be one in which the two parties would share the risks and rewards and seek to provide optimal service delivery and good value to service users and taxpayers. The PPP structuring process should create transparency in all of the specifications, costs, support, and procedures required to yield a sustainable project matters that are sometimes obscured from view within public sector transactions. Private sector participation has the potential to increase operating efficiency in infrastructure and public service provision through new technologies, innovative solutions and improved corporate governance structures. To the extent that these efficiency gains are passed through to users and taxpayers, the PPP solution adds value when compared with traditional infrastructure procurement. But this is not the automatic outcome of every PPP contract. The reason why it is very important to build the capacity of PPP units and risk management functions is to properly assess PPP proposals and safeguard taxpayers against unnecessary risks.

During the last 5 years, GoPb and GoS have been actively exploring PPP opportunities. GoS has achieved financial closure of two infrastructure PPP transactions. One of the PPP transactions, the Hyderabad-Mirpurkhas Dual Carriageway, has been constructed and is already generating revenue to the private partner. The positive demonstration effects and the relatively straight forward nature of this project has generated further interest from private sector investors and financiers in subsequent projects. GoPb is working on the financial closure of two transactions, one in food storage and one in the urban transport sector the Southern Lahore Ring Road. Both governments also have a pipeline of projects that are at various stages of conceptualization.

During this process, it has become evident that the private sector investors' and financiers' perception of risk associated with PPPs is high. This perception is due to (i) provincial governments' generally limited fiscal space to meet financial commitments (for which the accumulation of circular debt in the energy sector has been a proxy at the federal level), (ii) the concern that public financial management mechanisms may not be in place to enable provincial government's timely payment of financial obligations triggered by contingent liabilities on which PPP transactions are commonly based, and (iii) the private sector partner perception that they are in a weak position to enforce contractual commitments. As a consequence of these largely unquantifiable risk perceptions, investors and financiers are reluctant to participate in PPP projects. If they do participate, expectations of returns and cost financing are disproportionately inflated. In these cases, the private sector has the bargaining leverage of having more information about the underlying expected profitability and risks of the project than has the public sector party which is under pressure to reach financial closure. These expectations eventually increase the cost of project finance, and governments' contingent liabilities and project-related annual outlays, and result in sub-optimal and incomplete transfer of risks to the private sector.

The potential provincial PPP pipeline continues to grow and is increasingly more diversified from road to food sectors. The need for the governments to develop risk assessment and management mechanisms is urgent, to ensure that PPPs are fiscally affordable and economically sustainable. Risk assessment entails the determination of the probability that a risk will occur and then the potential cost associated with that risk. Through the terms of a PPP contract, different types of risk can result in additional costs and contingent liabilities to the public sector. These fiscal risks need to be properly appraised. By valuing the potential cost of these risks, the public manager is then in a better position to discuss and negotiate risk-sharing with the private entity and agree on which risks should be managed with greater priority.

The most important principle of risk allocation arrangements in PPPs is that risks are unbundled, quantified, and allocated to the parties that are best able to manage each risk. Ineffective risk allocation in a PPP results in an additional cost premium. The challenge is thus to negotiate a clear risk allocation between the public and private sectors that can maximize value for money to society and be implemented. These are required for sustained private sector investments and service provision to beneficiaries. Credit enhancement products, such as a guarantee facility, ADB's partial credit guarantee or partial risk guarantee products, can also be utilized effectively to attract private sector investment to infrastructure projects and improve the risk allocation arrangements in PPP transactions. For efficient risk management, the capacity of GoPb and GoS risk management units needs to be strengthened and operational linkages with PPP units and cells in the different departments clarified.

Impact Application of risk management systems and risk-offsetting mechanisms across all PPP transactions in Sindh and Punjab by 2016
Project Outcome
Description of Outcome Effective risk management systems and risk-offsetting mechanisms are available in Punjab and Sindh
Progress Toward Outcome Consultants have been fielded throughout 2014. Consultations were held with the government of Punjab on a viability gap fund and environmental guidelines for PPPs, and with the government of Sindh on risk management, PPP project selection criteria, and risk management. Associated guidelines have been developed and are being deliberated by the two governments.
Implementation Progress
Description of Project Outputs

1. Risk management toolkits finalized and adopted in Punjab and Sindh

2. Credit enhancement instruments that are applicable for PPP transactions in Sindh and Punjab identified

3. Technical capacity developed to identify, appraise, and manage fiscal and environmental risks in PPPs in Sindh and Punjab

Status of Implementation Progress (Outputs, Activities, and Issues)

Risk management guidelines and associated toolkits have been deliberated by the two governments. Finalization and adoption process is underway.

Credit enhancement instruments have been identified.

Capacity development activities have been completed.

Geographical Location Sindh,Punjab
Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects
Environmental Aspects
Involuntary Resettlement
Indigenous Peoples
Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation
During Project Design TA design and progress have been discussed with with the government of Punjab, the government of Sindh, the federal government, and potential PPP partners from financial and private sector during a TA fact-finding mission fielded to Islamabad, Karachi and Lahore on 18-26 June 2013, and during the three consultation missions fielded since then.
During Project Implementation Final reports will incorporate feedback from the implementing agencies. TA findings, frameworks and risk management product proposals developed will be discussed with stakeholders in a series of workshops to inform, validate, build ownership for, and ensure functional understanding of TA deliverables and recommendations.
Business Opportunities
Consulting Services To assist with TA implementation in Punjab and Sindh, five consultants will be engaged by ADB for 8.5 person-months to provide policy advice, and technical and capacity development support. The consultant team will include an international PPP risk management specialist (2 person-months), international financial sector (credit enhancement products) specialist (1.5 person- months), two national financial risk managers for Punjab and Sindh (2 person-months each), and a national environmental safeguards specialist (1 person month) to assess and update the environmental impact guidelines applicable for PPPs in Punjab and Sindh. The consultants will be engaged by ADB on an individual basis in accordance with the Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time).
Responsible ADB Officer Yesim M. Elhan-Kayalar
Responsible ADB Department Central and West Asia Department
Responsible ADB Division Public Management, Financial Sector and Trade Division, CWRD
Executing Agencies
Asian Development Bank
6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong
Metro Manila, Philippines
P.O. Box 789, 1099 Manila,
Concept Clearance -
Fact Finding -
Approval -
Last Review Mission -
Last PDS Update 26 Mar 2015

TA 8443-PAK

Approval Signing Date Effectivity Date Closing
Original Revised Actual
05 Sep 2013 - 05 Sep 2013 30 Apr 2014 31 Mar 2015 -
Financing Plan/TA Utilization Cumulative Disbursements
ADB Cofinancing Counterpart Total Date Amount
Gov Beneficiaries Project Sponsor Others
225,000.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 225,000.00 05 Sep 2013 197,737.96

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Evaluation Documents

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