The TA will promote demand-driven capacity development assistance. APCoP members will be supported in country-level work on results-based PSM as requested by member countries or through ongoing programs of ADB regional departments to promote sustainability of outcomes. The TA will strengthen results-based PSM systems such as M&E, evaluation policy, and planning and budgeting systems based on a country's specific circumstances. The CoP modality provides an effective forum for DMC officials to discuss specific sector issues and improve their governance systems. Results-based PSM also provides complementary and deepened ADB support to country operations. APCoP assistance enables governments to move toward results-based management of sectors, particularly ADB priority sectors over the longer term.
A. Impact and Outcome
The impact of the TA is that MfDR approaches will be further advanced in participating countries. This will be demonstrated through replication or expansion of plans for MfDR approaches in PSM in other sectors, ministries, and departments. The outcome will be increased application of MfDR by APCoP members in their country contexts. The outcome will be seen in the number of APCoP members reporting application of MfDR approaches on results-based PSM and MfDR principles applied in national and sector development plans or frameworks, knowledge products, and workshops and conferences, among others.
B. Methodology and Key Activities
This TA supports APCoP members through country-level and regional activities. To achieve its outcome, the TA will deliver three outputs: (i) plans for MfDR approaches in PSM developed through country-level activities, (ii) South South dialogue enhanced, and (iii) best practices in PSM distilled and disseminated.
The TA will focus on supporting capacity development on MfDR at the country level, specifically developing plans for MfDR approaches in PSM through training and workshops on specific country-level PSM issues. At least four country-level activities initiated by APCoP members will be supported under this TA in close cooperation with ADB regional departments.
Support for the country initiatives will focus on national, subnational, or sector PSM issues; these will serve to bring together senior government officials from the central (planning and finance) and sector ministries, technical experts, and civil service organizations to focus on specific results-based PSM issues. This will begin to establish country-based CoPs on MfDR to mirror the work of APCoP members at a regional level. APCoP members will use the results-based PSM framework as a tool to assess the gaps in a country's PSM system and identify the capacity-building initiatives needed to make the PSM processes results-oriented, and to enhance achievement of national outcomes. This process will assess PSM issues at a national level or for specific sectors. The assessment process, capacity initiatives, and implementation experiences will be distilled into knowledge products. This bottom-up approach will strengthen the ownership, accountability, and sustainability of proposed capacity development initiatives. APCoP's capacity development assistance could respond to requests initiated by APCoP members on MfDR, and involve APCoP members working with ADB regional departments to identify issues through joint country-based PSM assessments to (i) better inform project, sector, and country strategies; and (ii) strengthen the implementation of proposed or ongoing results-based PSM loan and TA initiatives.
The TA will enhance South South dialogue by bringing together APCoP members at the subregional level to share their country-level MfDR implementation experiences. APCoP will hold two knowledge-sharing seminars in the People's Republic of China (PRC) and one in Singapore. Topics that could be discussed include cutting-edge practices on PSM in the Asia and Pacific region, such as results-based management in country systems, and thematic and sector PSM issues.
Best practices on PSM will be distilled and disseminated through a regional knowledge-sharing conference of APCoP members to be held in the PRC, and through publications from the country-level PSM work, South South dialogues, and the regional knowledge-sharing event. APCoP will conduct the regional conference in cooperation with international experts and partners to share their experiences on capacity building for results-based management of selected sectors and thematic focus, such as targeted equitable growth, public sector strengthening for PPPs, and monitoring of education and health sector indicators, among others. This approach will promote a bottom-up approach to distilling knowledge from the countries on their PSM implementation experiences. The existing APCoP website will continue to facilitate knowledge storage, sharing, and dissemination.
There are a number of risks and assumptions associated with the TA outcome and outputs, as listed in the design and monitoring framework. At the outcome level, it is assumed that the MfDR plans and frameworks will be promoted by the government, because a criterion for country selection is that the assistance is demand-driven, i.e., requested by the DMC or through existing ADB operations. There is a risk that senior government officials lack commitment to develop and implement MfDR systems. This will be mitigated through the other TA outputs and components, specifically those dealing with South South dialogue and expert support.
C. Cost and Financing
The total cost of the R-CDTA is $500,000, which is to be financed on a grant basis by the People's Republic of China Poverty Reduction and Regional Cooperation Fund (PRCF) and administered by ADB.
D. Implementation Arrangements
ADB, through the Results Management Unit of the Strategy and Policy Department, will be the executing agency of the TA and will be responsible for overall management and monitoring of the activities. To increase DMC ownership, the coordinating committee, composed of senior DMC public officials, will guide TA implementation. The Results Unit, as secretariat of the APCoP, will coordinate activities with ADB regional departments (through the MfDR focal point network), resident missions, and its Regional and Sustainable Development Department. All TA proceeds will be disbursed in accordance with the ADB Technical Assistance Disbursement Handbook (May 2010, as amended from time to time).
The TA will be implemented over 14 months, commencing 1 May 2014 and ending 30 June 2015. It will require an international consultant on an intermittent basis as a technical advisor for the duration of the regional TA (up to 5.5 person-months of work). The technical advisor will be responsible for identifying key PSM issues for consideration by the CoP; overseeing publications on emerging topics on results-based PSM; sourcing experts; and discussing workshop contents with PSM practitioners. Two full-time national consultants will be required for financial, administrative, management, and research support for TA activities, particularly for the DMC-based workshops (which will involve up to 14 person-months each). High-quality, experienced international consultants will support the country-level CoP-driven PSM interventions in selected DMCs, and will be engaged on an intermittent basis (about 1 person-month of work in total). International subject matter experts will also be engaged as resource persons and facilitators. All consultants will be recruited on an individual basis in accordance with ADB's Guidelines on the Use of Consultants (2013, as amended from time to time).
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy
Managing for development results (MfDR) is an approach to orient the five core functions of management planning, budgeting, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation to deliver on intended results. MfDR is recognized as a key approach to development effectiveness. Efforts by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to promote MfDR focus on three aspects: (i) supporting MfDR capacity development in ADB developing member countries (DMCs), (ii) integrating a results-focused approach across ADB operations, and (iii) sustaining partnerships with development partners on MfDR initiatives.
To reinforce this DMC support, in 2006 ADB established the first regional network on MfDR, the Asia-Pacific community of practice (APCoP) on MfDR. This has now been emulated by other development partners through their own regional CoPs. APCoP's dialogue and knowledge products center on promoting MfDR through a framework that highlights the key features for a results-based public sector management (PSM) system. This framework has been developed into a guide for ADB staff for conducting public sector management assessments, and has been adopted by the other regional CoPs on MfDR. This APCoP support is consistent with ADB's long-term Strategy 2020 vision and the commitment to deliver results, and promotes knowledge sharing through finance++ initiatives. APCoP's activities are determined through a coordinating committee composed of senior government officials, with the secretariat housed in the Results Unit of the ADB Strategy and Policy Department.
APCoP has grown and matured into a DMC-driven CoP with approximately 1,000 members. It has a proven record as an innovative and effective vehicle to assist APCoP members mainstream, create, and share knowledge, and promote dialogue on results-based PSM. In the last 5 years there have been increasing requests to supplement regional activities and expand support for country-level piloting of innovative MfDR initiatives that could later be mainstreamed. This support for demand-driven initiatives would enhance the experience of APCoP members, and increase regional knowledge-sharing. The proposed regional capacity development technical assistance (TA) responds to requests from members for expanded support at the country level for results-based PSM initiatives. The design and monitoring framework, which reflects lessons from earlier ADB support, is in Appendix 1.
Public expenditure reviews persistently highlight weak PSM systems in DMCs that constrain the delivery and assessment of development initiatives. This is not unique to least-developed countries, as countries that have already achieved or are aspiring to achieve middle-income status face similar challenges, albeit at a different level.
Two elements define the character of PSM in ADB DMCs. The first is the nature of the key challenges faced by their governments, e.g., economic and social inequality, exclusion, poor governance undermined by corruption, a limited ability to protect the environment, and the need for higher levels of growth. The second is weak public sector managers who are working with weak public administration systems that are struggling to modernize, reduce their resource requirements, and for many of the DMCs assist in the national effort to break out of the middle-income country trap . Given this context, especially as regards inequality and exclusion, PSM needs to focus on the provision of socially effective, equitable services underpinned by legitimate governance. Suitable policies, programs, and institutional structures are essential elements, which need to be complemented by effective implementation by public administration systems. To be effective all components of a robust, results-based PSM system must be present. PSM capacity development in DMCs both in terms of system enhancement and individual capacity strengthening has been short term, is often supply-driven, and suffers from inadequate attention to the lack of necessary results dimensions that perpetuate weak PSM systems.
MfDR introduces features that, when applied to PSM, will enable countries to better plan, allocate resources, implement, monitor and evaluate for results. Results-oriented PSM is key to development effectiveness as it improves delivery of services, and enables governments to make informed decisions and allow for continuous learning to sustain development outcomes. Efforts to develop and adopt these capabilities have been successful in helping public management in a wide range of countries to improve their social and economic performance. For example, results-focused monitoring and evaluation (M&E) highlights the requirements for effective service delivery by providing the empirical basis to assess whether expected outputs and outcomes have been achieved. More importantly, it makes explicit the extent to which intended results are achieved and ultimately what value is added, and at what cost. This in turn informs future planning, resource allocation and implementation.
However, mainstreaming results-based approaches requires some adaptation, especially in the orientation of public sector managers. The establishment of APCoP and the development of its members as change agents has proven to be an integral and successful element in undertaking this adaptation; their understanding of cutting-edge challenges can help to transform weak PSM systems into robust results-based systems.
Support to APCoP has been provided over three phases: phase 1 (a pilot phase in 2006); phase 2 (the development phase from 2007 to 2010); and phase 3 (an expansion phase from 2011 to 2013). APCoP establishment, development and expansion was made possible by: (i) the shared concept of results-based PSM, which was identified, developed, and applied through a common framework; (ii) the APCoP membership, which began with 100 members in 2006 and expanded and diversified over the next two phases to over 1,000 members; (iii) APCoP programs, which moved from online discourse to face-to-face meetings that became regularized in regional centers of excellence on cutting-edge themes; and (iv) financing, which was originally dependent solely on funding through ADB's main TA facility, and is now increasingly self-financed by DMC governments. Finally, in terms of results, APCoP has moved from being a network within the Asia and Pacific region requiring capacity development, to one in which members are increasingly able to articulate a DMC perspective on results-based PSM through intraregional and interregional dialogue. In addition, APCoP members are increasingly able to demonstrate the ability to apply MfDR concepts in strengthening results-based PSM systems and policies. Future support aims to sustain these successes by mainstreaming results-based PSM at the country level, through an extensive, diversified network of APCoP members that can interact effectively in South South dialogue through self-financed mechanisms. ADB's role would be to catalyze these interactions, work closely with centers of excellence, and bring together best practices and experts to engage with APCoP.