The proposed knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will improve management of the urban public transport system in Phnom Penh to achieve a sustainable integrated system and promote its use by (i) developing policy guides and a planning toolkit for relevant public transport authorities; (ii) formulating candidate integrated urban public transport improvement programs; and (iii) providing capacity development training to the public transport authorities to improve their system management capacity, and public awareness-raising workshops to promote use of the system.
|Project Name||Supporting Sustainable Integrated Urban Public Transport Development|
|Project Type / Modality of Assistance||Technical Assistance
|Source of Funding / Amount||
|Strategic Agendas||Environmentally sustainable growth
Inclusive economic growth
|Drivers of Change||Gender Equity and Mainstreaming
Governance and capacity development
|Sector / Subsector||
Transport / Transport policies and institutional development
|Gender Equity and Mainstreaming||Effective gender mainstreaming|
|Description||The proposed knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will improve management of the urban public transport system in Phnom Penh to achieve a sustainable integrated system and promote its use by (i) developing policy guides and a planning toolkit for relevant public transport authorities; (ii) formulating candidate integrated urban public transport improvement programs; and (iii) providing capacity development training to the public transport authorities to improve their system management capacity, and public awareness-raising workshops to promote use of the system.|
|Project Rationale and Linkage to Country/Regional Strategy||
The population of Phnom Penh, which is Cambodia's capital, increased from 1.13 million in 1998 to 1.85 million in 2012; this trend is expected to continue, with the population forecast to increase to 2.41 million in 2020 and 2.87 million in 2035. It is expected that the number of all person trips, including to home, to work, to school, business and private by walking, motorbike, passenger car, and paratransit, will increase from 4.30 million trips in 2012 to 6.97 million trips in 2035. Urban areas have been expanding along major roads towards the west, north, and south, and beyond existing urban areas to the west.
Traffic conditions in Phnom Penh are worsening. The country's economic growth has spurred a rapid increase in the number of vehicles, with a 350% increase in the number of registered vehicles from 2001 to 2012, while the average travel speed in the city center decreased from 22.9 to 14.6 kilometers per hour over the same period.
In line with the 2001 Transport Master Plan (TMP), which had a target year of 2015, the Government of Cambodia invested in road construction and improvement, intersection improvement, traffic signal installation, and traffic safety improvements. These investments have improved traffic conditions to some degree, but a 2015 review found that a public transport system and traffic management measures are required to effectively alleviate the worsening traffic conditions.
In 2014, with support of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the government reformulated the 2001 TMP and developed the Comprehensive Urban Transport Plan (CUTP) to improve people's mobility, maintain people- and environment-friendly urban conditions, and revitalize economic activities in Phnom Penh City by promoting a shift from a private-oriented urban transport system to a well-balanced system of public and private transport with a combination of public transport enhancement, traffic management improvement, and road network improvement. The CUTP is an updated TMP with a 2035 target date that is built on a traffic-demand forecast model; it includes an overall investment implementation plan, with an expected total investment cost of $4.6 billion. It also includes medium-term (2017 2020) and long-term (2021 2035) action plans that define targets, actions, periods, and responsible agencies.
The action plans include three components: (i) public transport, involving completion of a basic bus network and implementation of rail transit, with 8 proposed actions; (ii) traffic management, comprising upgrading of signalized intersections and traffic demand management, (such as park and bus ride, parking measures, and improvement of the pedestrian walking environment and commodity transport), with 8 proposed actions; and (iii) roads, involving development of radial, ring, and inner city trunk road systems, and improvement of bottleneck intersections, with 13 proposed actions. Phnom Penh needs to implement the public transport and traffic management components, because the road network improvement alone is insufficient to improve traffic conditions.
The government and Phnom Penh Capital City (PPCC) have been implementing the medium-term action plan for the public transport and traffic management components with the support of development partners in an effort to meet travel demand resulting from Phnom Penh's growth, and to address worsening traffic conditions. PPCC introduced 3 bus routes serviced by 57 buses in 2014, and will expand up to 8 routes served by additional buses to be provided by the People's Republic of China and JICA in 2017, and install 360 new bus stops along the routes. Also, JICA has upgraded 100 signalized intersections and is preparing a pilot bus priority lane. In addition, JICA and France plan to introduce an urban rail for the East West transport corridor and a tramway as a part of the long-term action plan.
The public transport and traffic management components are emerging topics, and the government and PPCC officials require new standards and regulations to consistently plan, design, and implement actions (especially for mode interchanges) in the CUTP medium- and long-term action plans, in support of the development of a sustainable integrated urban public transport system. The development of standards and regulations will allow the officials to coordinate and manage the action plans to (i) improve accessibility from the travel starting point to the urban public transport system; and (ii) improve connectivity or integration among different modes (e.g., private vehicle, paratransit, walking and public transport), and within a mode (e.g., bus to bus). Meeting these needs is essential to ensure the urban public transport system plays a greater role in transit in Phnom Penh.
|Impact||People- and environment-friendly urban conditions maintained and urban activities in Phnom Penh City vitalized|
|Outcome||Urban public transport system management improved|
1. Sustainable integrated urban public transport policy guides and planning toolkit developed
2. Candidate integrated urban public transport improvement programs formulated
3. Urban public transport management capacity and awareness improved
|Summary of Environmental and Social Aspects|
|Stakeholder Communication, Participation, and Consultation|
|During Project Design||To identify the needs to improve the public transport system in Phnom Penh and formulate the proposed TA, the ADB team had periodically consulted with the government agencies, Phnom Penh Capital City, development partners, and a few bus users.|
|During Project Implementation|
|Consulting Services||Urban Public Transport Policy Development Program, QCBS 90:10, FTP|
|Responsible ADB Officer||Mizusawa, Daisuke|
|Responsible ADB Department||Southeast Asia Department|
|Responsible ADB Division||Transport and Communications Division, SERD|
Ministry of Public Works and Transport
4th Floor Eastern Building
Corner Norodom Boulevard Street 106
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
|Concept Clearance||29 Sep 2017|
|Last Review Mission||-|
|Last PDS Update||19 Nov 2017|
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