District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia

Date: June 2014
Type: Papers and Briefs
Series: Economics Working Papers
ISSN: 1655-5252 (print)
Author: Pradhan, Menno; de Ree, Joppe


This paper documents the effects of district education policies on student learning in Indonesian primary schools and finds substantial heterogeneity in learning gains across districts. However, policy variables like school budgets, participation rates in teacher working groups, or student-teacher ratios, can explain only a fraction of the differences in learning across districts. Schools with more active teacher working groups and higher-qualified teachers achieve better learning gains. Documenting differences across districts is thus important as it suggests that districts that manage to improve their system can expect improvements in learning outcomes and it serves as starting point in understanding what does and does not work in Indonesia’s education system.


  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Context
  • Data
  • District Teacher Management Policies and Student Learning
  • Conclusions
  • References