Gender Equality and the Labor Market: Cambodia, Kazakhstan, and the Philippines

Date: December 2013
Type: Reports
Series: Promoting Gender Equality in the Labor Market for More Inclusive Growth
ISBN: 978-92-9254-361-7 (print), 978-92-9254-362-4 (web)
Price: US$28.00 (hardcopy)


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Increasing job opportunities and decent work for women are essential for inclusive growth, and they are vital for advancing economic and social development in a country. This approach to attaining economic and social wealth is based on reliable academic and statistical evidence and is increasingly accepted by international and national financial and development organizations across the globe.

In Asia, mostly women continue to experience the greatest disadvantages resulting from gender inequalities and entrenched discrimination in work and in life. The economic and social contributions made by women in the family, the workplace, and society tend to be devalued. There are, however, many strategies which have been developed to counter gender discrimination and promote equality for working men and women through legislation and social and economic policies to reverse the unequal labor market outcomes for women.

To document the nature and extent of gender inequalities in the labor market, as well as to capture and share these promising initiatives, ADB initiated studies in three countries—Cambodia, Kazakhstan, and the Philippines—to identify how these countries promote gender equality in their labor markets.

This report comprises a gendered analysis of labor markets, policies, and legislation in each country and provides recommendations for legislation and policies that have the potential to expand or improve employment and work opportunities for women in specific sectors.


  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • Gendered Employment and Inclusive Growth
  • Review of Policies for Gender Equality in the Labor Market
  • Review of Legislative Frameworks and Laws for Gender Equality in the Labor Market
  • Policy and Legislative Recommendations for a Gender-Inclusive Labor Market
  • References