Inequality of Human Opportunities in Developing Asia

Publication | June 2012

The paper analyzes equity of opportunity in basic education and infrastructure services in seven developing countries, namely, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Viet Nam.

It uses a method developed by the World Bank called the Human Opportunity Index. The study finds that inequality of opportunity is driven mainly by per capita household expenditure. This suggests that household poverty plays a crucial role in determining equitable access to basic services.


  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Human Opportunity Index
  • Contribution of Individual Circumstance Variables
  • Empirical Analysis
  • Conclusions
  • References