Innovative Strategies in Technical and Vocational Education and Training for Accelerated Human Resource Development in South Asia

Publication | January 2014

This publication synthesizes country reviews of technical and vocational education and training in Bangladesh, Bhutan, the Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka.

One of the greatest challenges faced by South Asian countries is creating productive employment for the vast numbers of young entrants to the labor market. This publication highlights priorities and strategies in meeting current and emerging needs for skills development in Bangladesh, Bhutan, the Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. It identifies key issues, constraints and areas of improvement in making skills training more responsive to emerging labor market needs in South Asia as an important factor in sustaining high economic growth.


Opportunities exist for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of skills development in South Asia through technical and vocational education and training.

First, there is a need to build private sector involvement and provision in skills development. This requires provision of incentives for employers to identify and fill training needs.

Second, there is a need to support private training providers, for which funding arrangements will be crucial, including endowment for proven programs, and support to private training providers’ associations for services and technical assistance to their members.

Third, targeted capacity development is critical in planning and programming as well as in organizational development to streamline overall coordination and efficacy of skills training.

Last, given the immense needs for skills development, sustainable financing arrangements will be essential.

About the report

The report was completed in 2012 under the Australian AID-supported Phase 1 of Subproject 11 (Innovative Strategies for Accelerated Human Resource Development) of RETA 6337 (Development Partnership Program for South Asia).


  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction and Background
  • Strengths and Innovations
  • Economic Relevance of Skills Training
  • Access and Equity in Skills Provision
  • Quality of Training Provision
  • Effectiveness of Technical and Vocational Education and Training Organizations and Administration
  • Resource Generation and Use: Internal Efficiency and Sustainability
  • Strategies and Innovations
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Appendixes