Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2015
The Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2015, the 46th edition of this series, includes the latest available economic, financial, social, and environmental indicators for the 48 regional members of the Asian Development Bank.
It presents the latest key statistics on development issues concerning the economies of Asia and the Pacific to a wide audience, including policy makers, development practitioners, government officials, researchers, students, and the general public.
While progress in the spread of education is noticeable, shortfalls in the quantity and, especially, quality of education constrain skill development and growth. Some of the report's findings include the following:
- Developing Asia has made large strides in expanding educational access to education. Average years of schooling nearly doubled from 3.9 in 1970 to 8.0 in 2010;
- Skills remain weak in many parts of the region, due to gaps in both the quantity and quality of education provided;
- A failure to raise the quality of education will have consequences for growth prospects;
- Public educational expenditures are necessary, but not sufficient to improve learning outcomes; and
- Families and firms also need to be involved in the region’s skill development agenda.
Some of the report's findings also include the following:
- In purchasing power parity terms, Asia and the Pacific generated more than 40% of global Gross Domestic Product in 2014. The People's Republic of China and India accounted for nearly 70% of the region’s output.
- Inflation generally remained low across Asia and the Pacific in 2014 as declining oil prices took pressure off of consumer prices.
- The exchange rates of 35 out of 44 regional currencies depreciated against the US dollar in 2014.
- Asia and the Pacific accounted for about one-third of the world’s merchandise exports in 2014, up from about one-quarter in 2001. Merchandise export growth slowed and merchandise import growth was negative in the region in 2014.
- Intraregional trade comprised the majority of the region’s exports and imports in 2014.
- Asia and the Pacific now consumes more than 40% of the world’s energy
- Asia’s economic development has led to increased emissions of greenhouse gases.
- Corruption is hindering development, with half of the region’s economies falling into the bottom one-third of Transparency International’s global corruption rankings.
Part I - A Smarter Future: Skills, Education, and Growth in Asia
The special chapter, “A Smarter Future: Skills, Education, and Growth in Asia” shows that developing Asia has done well at expanding access to education. The region now needs to focus more on the quality of education, and to ensure that its workforce has the skills to take the region through the economic transition to prosperity. To improve skills quality, the region needs to: base public financing on measurable educational outcomes, design curriculum content that is well matched to student capabilities and labor-market needs, make sure that curricula are delivered well, and ensure that the disadvantaged receive high-quality basic education. Above all, decisions in these areas must be guided by robust data so that monitoring, performance evaluation, and accountability of teachers and schools can be tracked, for achieving better learning outcomes.
Part II - Millennium Development Goals Trends and Tables
Part II presents the latest data on indicators of MDGs and corresponding targets with short commentaries on progress toward achieving them. Across Asia and the Pacific, there has been spectacular progress in reducing extreme poverty, advancing universal primary education, and bridging gender gaps in primary schooling and providing access to improved drinking water. There has also been progress in the region toward reducing hunger (particularly child malnutrition), and significantly reducing child and maternal mortality, although progress in these areas has fallen short of the MDG targets. While there is much cause for celebration regarding attainment of many MDG targets, there remains an unfinished agenda including the challenges posed by inequality and the threat of climate change.
|Introduction to the Millennium Development Goals|
|Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger||XLS|
|Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education||XLS|
|Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women||XLS|
|Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality||XLS|
|Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health||XLS|
|Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Other Diseases||XLS|
|Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability||XLS|
|Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development||XLS|
Part III - Regional Trends and Tables
Part III contains regional tables that present indicators across eight themes: People; Economy and Output; Money, Finance, and Prices; Globalization; Transport and Communications; Energy and Electricity; Environment; and Government and Governance. In 2014, economic growth accelerated in just over half of Asia and Pacific economies, with the region now accounting for more than 40% of global gross domestic product, in purchasing power parity terms, and about one-third of the world’s merchandise exports. Quality of life, as measured by the Human Development Index, continued to improve in most of the region in 2014. But, rapid development and an expanding role in the global economy are also bringing new challenges to the region. Asia and the Pacific now consumes more than 40% of the world’s energy and is facing increased emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants, and the consumption of scarce resources. Furthermore, corruption is hindering development, with half of the region’s economies falling into the bottom one-third of Transparency International’s global corruption rankings.
|Introduction to the Regional Trends and Table|
|Economy and Output||XLS|
|Money, Finance, and Prices||XLS|
|Transport and Communications||XLS|
|Energy and Electricity||XLS|
|Government and Governance||XLS|
|China, People's Republic of||XLS|
|Hong Kong, China||XLS|
|Korea, Republic of||XLS|
|Lao People's Democratic Republic||XLS|
|Micronesia, Federated States of||XLS|
|Papua New Guinea||XLS|
Part IV - Global Value Chains: Indicators for International Production Sharing
Part IV presents statistics on selected member economies’ participation in global value chains (GVCs). In an economic environment increasingly characterized by globally distributed production processes, traditional trade statistics need to be complemented with measures that capture the essence of cross-economy production arrangements. With trade in intermediate goods and services accounting for more than half of all international trade, the need for substantive quantitative information on inter-sectoral and bilateral transactions to illuminate policy and research issues is more pronounced than ever. Recognizing the importance of indepth trade statistics, a number of key GVC-related statistics have been generated by ADB for selected economies of Asia and are introduced in this edition.
|Bilateral Sector Indicators, 2000||XLS|
|Bilateral Sector Indicators, 2005||XLS|
|Bilateral Sector Indicators, 2006||XLS|
|Bilateral Sector Indicators, 2007||XLS|
|Bilateral Sector Indicators, 2008||XLS|
|Bilateral Sector Indicators, 2011||XLS|
|Bilateral Sector Indicators, 2015||XLS|
|Export Decomposition, 2000||XLS|
|Export Decomposition, 2005||XLS|
|Export Decomposition, 2006||XLS|
|Export Decomposition, 2007||XLS|
|Export Decomposition, 2008||XLS|
|Export Decomposition, 2011||XLS|
|Export Decomposition, 2015||XLS|