Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries 2006

Publication | August 2006

This 37th issue of the Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries features a theme chapter, "Measuring Policy Effectiveness in Health and Education." It includes 38 statistical tables that compare indicators of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other key statistics across the 44 developing member countries (DMCs) and 44 country tables, each with 8-year data series on social, economic and financial statistics.

This 37th issue of the Key Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries features a theme chapter, “Measuring Policy Effectiveness in Health and Education.” It includes 38 statistical tables that compare indicators of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other key statistics across the 44 developing member countries (DMCs) and 44 country tables, each with 8-year data series on social, economic and financial statistics. The special chapter and statistical tables are also published on the ADB web site.

Although several DMCs have made significant progress over the past few decades, there are indications that many will not attain the health and education MDGs by 2015. Some of the biggest health and education deficiencies within countries occur among those who are at the bottom of the income distribution. In many DMCs children from poorer families are almost three times more likely to be out of school than those from rich families. The differential in child mortality rates are also of a similar magnitude. The special chapter examines the progress of the health and education MDGs with a focus on the poor because health and education improvements are not only goals in their own right but they are also critical for mainstreaming the marginalized and for ensuring that they benefit from and participate in the growth process.

The special chapter introduces a simple analytical framework which can be utilized to inform policy making aimed at improving health and education outcomes both on average in the population as well as at the margin among the poor. Measurement for management is at the core of this diagnostic framework and the chapter argues that it is imperative that health and education outcomes regularly be measured not only at the national level, but also at disaggregated levels such as among the $1-a-day and $2-a-day poor. Measurement of the extent to which health and education for the poor deviate from the average is needed to trigger corrective policy action. Such measurements are also important for monitoring purposes and for enhancing the accountability of stakeholders.

The chapter also underscores the need for careful within-country analyses of determinants of health and education attainment. In many DMCs, the problem is that government spending is not pro-poor, with the emphasis being on tertiary as opposed to primary health and education. Household income and maternal education are also critical factors that need to be addressed. Although economic growth can be important, the chapter highlights several instances where impressive gains in health and education were realized in relatively low-growth settings. Evidence (from impact analyses) suggests that carefully targeted, pro-poor, results-focused interventions such as conditional cash transfers, food fortification interventions, food-for-education programs are highly effective in improving health and education outcomes especially among the poor.

Contents 

Foreword, Acknowledgements, Statistical Contacts, Introductory Notes

Part I: Special Chapter: Measuring Policy Effectiveness in Health and Education

Part II: Millennium Development Goals Tables

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger PDF XLS
Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education PDF XLS
Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women  PDF XLS
Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality  PDF XLS
Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health  PDF XLS
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and Other Diseases  PDF XLS
Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability  PDF XLS
Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development  PDF XLS

Part III: Regional Tables

Table 1: Poverty, Inequality and Human Development PDF XLS
Table 2: Education Indicators PDF XLS
Table 3: Environment Indicators PDF XLS
Table 4: Health and Nutrition Indicators PDF XLS
Table 5: Mortality and Reproductive Health PDF XLS
Table 6: Population PDF XLS
Table 7: Population by Age Group PDF XLS
Table 8: Labor and Employment by Gender and Economic Activity PDF XLS
Table 9: Land Use PDF XLS
Table 10: Agriculture Production PDF XLS
Table 11: Total and Per Capita GNI PDF XLS
Table 12: Shares of Major Sectors in GDP PDF XLS
Table 13: Expenditure Shares in GDP PDF XLS
Table 14: Domestic Saving, Capital Formation, and Resource Gap PDF XLS
Table 15: Growth Rates of GDP and Major Sectors PDF XLS
Table 16: Inflation Rate PDF XLS
Table 17: Growth Rates of Merchandise Exports, fob PDF XLS
Table 18: Growth Rates of Merchandise Imports, cif PDF XLS
Table 19: Foreign Trade Indicators PDF XLS
Table 20: Direction of Trade: Merchandise Exports PDF XLS
Table 21: Direction of Trade: Merchandise Imports PDF XLS
Table 22: Government Finance Indicators PDF XLS
Table 23: Money Supply Indicators PDF XLS
Table 24: Foreign Direct Investment, Net Inflows PDF XLS
Table 25: International Reserves Indicators PDF XLS
Table 26: External Debt and Debt Service Payments PDF XLS
Table 27: Debt Indicators PDF XLS
Table 28: Official Flows from All Sources to DMCs PDF XLS
Table 29: Net Private Flows from All Sources to DMCs PDF XLS
Table 30: Aggregate Net Resource Flows from All Sources to DMCs PDF XLS

Part IV. Country Tables

Afghanistan PDF XLS
Armenia PDF XLS
Azerbaijan PDF XLS
Bangladesh PDF XLS
Bhutan PDF XLS
Brunei Darussalam PDF XLS
Cambodia PDF XLS
China, People's Republic of PDF XLS
Cook Islands PDF XLS
Fiji Islands PDF XLS
Hong Kong, China PDF XLS
India PDF XLS
Indonesia PDF XLS
Kazakhstan PDF XLS
Kiribati PDF XLS
Korea, Republic of PDF XLS
Kyrgyz Republic PDF XLS
Lao People's Democratic Republic PDF XLS
Malaysia PDF XLS
Maldives PDF XLS
Marshall Islands PDF XLS
Micronesia, Federated States of PDF XLS
Mongolia PDF XLS
Myanmar PDF XLS
Nauru PDF XLS
Nepal PDF XLS
Pakistan PDF XLS
Palau PDF XLS
Papua New Guinea PDF XLS
Philippines PDF XLS
Samoa PDF XLS
Singapore PDF XLS
Solomon Islands PDF XLS
Sri Lanka PDF XLS
Taipei,China PDF XLS
Tajikistan PDF XLS
Thailand PDF XLS
Timor-Leste PDF XLS
Tonga PDF XLS
Turkmenistan PDF XLS
Tuvalu PDF XLS
Uzbekistan PDF XLS
Vanuatu PDF XLS
Viet Nam PDF XLS

Sources

Definitions