Prospects for Carbon Capture and Storage in Southeast Asia
Carbon capture and storage offers an opportunity for balancing economic growth and continued fossil fuel use with emission reductions in Southeast Asia. Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam—the four focus countries of this study—collectively represent a dynamic group of economies. These are among the fastest-growing economies in the world are all acutely aware of rising GHG emissions. They have begun to make concerted efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through domestic action and international climate negotiations.
This report was produced under the Technical Assistance Grant: Determining the Potential for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Southeast Asia (TA 7575-REG), and is focused on an assessment of the CCS potential in Thailand, Viet Nam, and specific regions of Indonesia (South Sumatra) and the Philippines (Calabarzon).
It contains inventories of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission sources, estimates of overall storage potential, likely source-sink match options for potential CCS projects, and an analysis of existing policy, legal, and regulatory frameworks with a view toward supporting future CCS operations.
The report also presents a comparative financial analysis of candidate CCS projects, highlights possible incentive schemes for financing CCS, and provides an actionable road map for pilot, demonstration, and commercial CCS projects.
Some of the report's key findings include the following:
- Carbon capture and storage deployment must be accelerated to achieve the kind of reductions envisioned by the International Energy Agency;
- Carbon capture and storage offers an opportunity for balancing economic growth and continued fossil fuel use with emission reductions in Southeast Asia;
- Annual inventory of 200 million metric tons of CO2 emissions from existing sources conﬁrms that sufﬁcient capture streams are available for carbon capture and storage;
- Natural gas processing and power plants emerged as the best capture sources;
- With an estimated 54 gigatons of storage capacity, the study conﬁrms that the four countries in Southeast Asia assessed for storage have sufﬁcient capacity to sequester CO2;
- Economic analysis conﬁrms that natural gas processing is the lowest-cost option for carbon capture and storage, followed by natural gas combined-cycle and supercritical pulverized coal power plants;
- Revenues from additional oil production resulting from CO2-enhanced oil recovery could help offset the higher cost of carbon capture and storage;
- Commercial-scale carbon capture and storage requires an enabling regulatory environment, which could be framed by adapting existing regulations;
- The study recommends using an effective public communication and engagement process to support carbon capture and storage development; and
- The study offers a comprehensive 15-year road map, starting with a pilot that provides the basis for subsequent demonstration and commercial carbon capture and storage projects.
- Executive Summary
- Capture Sources
- CO2 Storage Capacity
- Source–Sink Matching
- Carbon Capture and Storage Cost Analysis
- Legal and Social Issues in Carbon Capture and Storage
- Road Map for Carbon Capture and Storage Development
- Conclusion and Recommendations