ADB and Microfinance

Microfinance is the provision of a broad range of financial services--such as deposits, loans, payment services, money transfers, and insurance--to poor and low-income households and their microenterprises. It supports the concept that low-income individuals are capable of lifting themselves out of poverty if given access to financial services.

Microfinance plays a significant role in ADB's overarching goal to reduce poverty in Asia and the Pacific. ADB believes that providing access to microfinance is an effective way of reaching the poor and improving their lives.

ADB’s Microfinance Development Strategy ensures access to institutional financial services for a majority of poor and low-income households and their microenterprises. It aims to support the development of sustainable microfinance systems that can provide diverse, high-quality services.

To achieve its objective for microfinance, ADB focuses on:

  • creating a microfinance-friendly policy environment
  • developing financial infrastructure
  • building viable retail institutions
  • supporting pro-poor innovations
  • supporting social intermediation

Institutional microfinance

Institutional microfinance includes services provided by both formal institutions (such as rural banks and cooperatives) and semiformal institutions (such as nongovernment organizations). Microfinance institutions are institutions whose major business is the provision of microfinance services.

ADB’s microfinance projects cover these specific areas

 

Financial consumer protection

Consumer protection is one of the vital policy objectives in microfinance. Transparency, fair treatment and effective recourse are three elements that must be considered in imposing financial consumer protection. Effective regulations protecting the welfare of microfinance consumers are necessary to lower the risks on poor households, who are inexperienced in and have little knowledge of finance operations. The government plays an important role in regulating microfinance players and enforcing measures to ensure their competitiveness and transparency.

Below are ADB's projects related to financial consumer protection from 11 April 1986 to 30 June 2014.

Approval Number Type of Project Country Title of Project Amount (US$) Approval Date
8250 TA REG Improving Financial Inclusion In Asia and The Pacific 750,000 6 December 2012
8108 TA VIE Supporting Microfinance Development Program 500,000 5 July 2012
2877 Loan VIE Microfinance Development Program - Subprogram 1 40,000,000 5 July 2012
7998 TA THA Development Of A Strategic Framework for Financial Inclusion 1,500,000 15 December 2011
7765 TA PRC Capacity Development 0f Partner Banks in Microfinance Wholesale Lending 225,000 29 December 2010
226 Grant PNG Microfinance Expansion 6,000,000 28 October 2010
7499 TA VIE Microfinance Sector Development Program 500,000 21 February 2010
4887 TA IND Capacity Building for Rural Cooperative Credit Structure Reform 2,000,000 8 December 2006
9088 Grant PHI Developing Financial Cooperatives 900,000 14 March 2006
4755 TA CAM Developing Deposit Services in Rural Cambodia 600,000 21 December 2005
4693 TA PHI Support the Implementation of the Microfinance Development Program 500,000 22 November 2005
4638 TA VIE Implementing the Regulatory and Supervisory Framework for Microfinance 250,000 29 August 2005
4544 TA PHI Enhancing Access of the Poor to Microfinance Services in Frontier Areas 250,000 23 December 2004
4491 TA AZE Developing Microfinance Regulations and Collateral Framework 800,000 17 December 2004
3635 TA UZB Pilot Testing of Rural Savings and Credit Unions 150,000 5 March 2001
5952 RETA REG Commercialization of Microfinance 700,000 20 November 2000
5950 RETA REG Financial Services for Poor Women 600,000 16 November 2000
5929 RETA REG Microcredit Summit Asia and Pacific Regional Meeting 140,000 5 September 2000
3413 TA LAO Rural Finance Development (TA Cluster) 2,020,000 9 March 2000
3344 TA IND Strengthening Microfinance Institutions for Urban and Environmental Infrastructure Finance 500,000 17 December 1999
3143 TA PRC International Symposium on Microfinance and Urban Unemployment in PRC 150,000 23 December 1998
2539 TA PRC All China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives 580,000 5 March 1996
1067 Loan BAN Rural Women Employment Creation 8,000,000 13 December 1990
5207 RETA REG Study on Informal Credit Markets in Selected Developing Member Countries 350,000 11 April 1986

As of August 2014

Helping women and girls

Women may have very limited financial control and be dependent on their husband’s access to financial services. Addressing the gender issue in financial inclusion is more than just formulating projects that target women as a market. Gender-related projects in financial inclusion should aim to elevate the role of women in the society to be at par with male clients. ADB's microfinance projects that focus on helping women increase their financial literacy, access to financial services and products, and participation in microfinance activities.

Below is a list of ADB microfinance projects related to gender from 27 May 1983 to 30 June 2014.

Approval Number Type of Project Country Title of Project Amount (US$) Approval Date
8480 TA UZB Improving Rural Small Business Access to Finance 500,000 1 October 2013
9170 Grant KGZ Women's Entrepreneurship Development 1,500,000 14 January 2013
9153 Grant BAN Institutional Support for Migrant Workers' Remittances 2,000,000 18 January 2011
9152 Grant MON Promoting Inclusive Financial Services for the Poor 2,500,000 17 December 2010
226 Grant PNG Microfinance Expansion 6,000,000 28 October 2010
2634 Loan UZB Second Small and Microfinance Development 50,000,000 21 April 2010
2617 Loan IND Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprise Development 50,000,000 26 February 2010
2199 Loan PHI Microfinance Development Program 150,000,000 22 November 2005
2000 Loan TAJ Microfinance Systems Development Program (Program Loan) 4,000,000 26 June 2003
2001 Loan TAJ Microfinance Systems Development Program (Project Loan) 4,000,000 26 June 2003
1806 Loan PAK Microfinance Sector Development Program - Project Loan 80,000,000 13 December 2000
1805 Loan PAK Microfinance Sector Development Program - Program Loan 70,000,000 13 December 2000
5950 RETA REG Financial Services for Poor Women 600,000 16 November 2000
1741 Loan CAM Rural Credit and Savings 20,000,000 27 April 2000
3206 TA VAN Rural Financial Services 250,000 16 June 1999
1634 Loan BAN Rural Livelihood 42,600,000 29 September 1998
2937 TA PAK Rural Microfinance 600,000 12 December 1997
2818 TA CAM Rural Credit and Savings 600,000 26 June 1997
2454 TA SAM Microcredit for Women's Enterprises 100,000 28 November 1995
2293 TA BAN Rural Livelihood 287,000 24 January 1995
2286 TA VIE Rural Finance 586,000 12 January 1995
2277(L)/ 1327 Grant INO Microcredit 1,000,000 29 December 1994
1327 Loan INO Microcredit 25,700,000 25 October 1994
1849 TA INO Microcredit 455,000 23 February 1993
1067 Loan BAN Rural Women Employment Creation 8,000,000 13 December 1990
940 Loan PHI NGO-Microcredit 8,000,000 22 December 1988

As of August 2014

Remittance and payment services

Automated teller machines, Internet and mobile phone banking, and other technology innovations have improved access to financial services and cut back on the delivery time of financial transactions and services, including remittances and money transfers. ADB projects reduce the risk of remitting money to poor rural households, particularly by migrant workers.

Below is a list of ADB microfinance projects related to remittance and payment services.

Approval Number Type of Project Country Title of Project Amount (US$) Approval Date
9153 Grant BAN Institutional Support for Migrant Workers' Remittances 2,000,000 18-Jan-11
6254 RETA REG Joint Conference on Worker Remittances and Poverty Reduction with Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Development Programme 150,000 30-Aug-05

As of August 2014

Housing finance

ADB has been providing low-income housing finance to developing countries since the late 1970s. ADB believes that the housing sector supports poverty reduction and inclusive growth. Housing construction contributes to economic output, and improved housing improves the standard of living of its occupants. Microfinance institutions are being encouraged to diversify their set of financial products and services to include housing finance.

Microfinance funding

Funding is a vital element in rolling out projects that will improve access to finance and ensure sustainability in the finance sector. The bulk of microfinance funding is direct funding, which supports portfolio growth of microfinance institutions.

Microfinance funders may be private or public. Public funders such as bilateral and multilateral agencies, development finance institutions, and local government are motivated by development and social objectives. Private funders, which include private and institutional investors, foundations, and nongovernment organizations may have a business or profit motive on top of their social goals.

Branchless/mobile banking

Mobile banking, which refers to the use of mobile phones to access financial transactions and services, has been one of the most important innovations in improving and lowering the cost of access to financial services. Because mobile banking allows real-time transactions without requiring physical presence at a bank, it helps the poor and those living in remote areas take advantage of financial services that would otherwise have been difficult to access.

Social responsibility

Socially responsible microfinance institutions apply financial ethics and ensure consumer protection by helping clients become more financially literate.

Below is a list of ADB microfinance projects related to social responsibility.

Approval Number Type of Project Country Title of Project Amount (US$) Approval Date
9088 Grant PHI Developing Financial Cooperatives 900,000 14 March 2006

As of August 2014

Savings mobilization

Poor households are often unable to deposit their savings in banks due to limited facilities. Despite developments in the financial inclusion sector, savings mobilization has accounted for an insignificant portion of financial services being offered by microfinance institutions. To address this issue, ADB loans provided to the microfinance sector in Asia and the Pacific region support the promotion of domestic savings mobilization. Improved savings mobilization can strengthen the sustainability of microfinance institutions as well as expand their outreach.

Below is a list of ADB microfinance projects related to savings mobilization from 27 May 1983 to 30 June 2014.

Approval Number Type of Project Country Title of Project Amount (US$) Approval Date
9088 Grant PHI Developing Financial Cooperatives 900,000 14 March 2006

As of August 2014

Institutional development

To achieve sector sustainability and expand outreach to more poor households, it is necessary to build up the capacity of microfinance institutions. Strong microfinance institutions must be well governed and render quality financial services to its clients.

Besides supporting the development of existing institutions, ADB also supports the establishment of microfinance institutions in countries where there are few such services.

Below is the list of ADB microfinance projects related to institutional development from 27 May 1983 to 30 June 2014.

Approval Number Type of Project Country Title of Project Amount (US$) Approval Date
8391 TA VIE Strengthening Microfinance Sector Operation and Supervision 1,000,000 21 June 2013
8336 TA VAN Expansion of Rural Financial Services 225,000 15 February 2013
9170 Grant KGZ Women's Entrepreneurship Development 1,500,000 14 January 2013
8224 TA INO Improving Access to Finance in Aceh and North Sumatra 800,000 8 November 2012
2877 Loan VIE Microfinance Development Program - Subprogram 1 40,000,000 5 July 2012
7777 TA NEP Improving Access to Finance Sector Development Program 600,000 27 January 2011
9153 Grant BAN Institutional Support for Migrant Workers' Remittances 2,000,000 18 January 2011
7765 TA PRC Capacity Development of Partner Banks in Microfinance Wholesale Lending 225,000 29 December 2010
9152 Grant MON Promoting Inclusive Financial Services for the Poor 2,500,000 17 December 2010
7685 TA REG Market Study for a Non-Sovereign Microfinance Funding Initiative 135,000 29 November 2010
2686 Loan PNG Microfinance Expansion 13,000,000 28 October 2010
226 Grant PNG Microfinance Expansion 6,000,000 28 October 2010
2634 Loan UZB Second Small and Microfinance Development 50,000,000 21 April 2010
2617 Loan IND Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprise Development 50,000,000 26 February 2010
7499 TA VIE Microfinance Sector Development Program 500,000 21 February 2010
9140 Grant VIE Formalizing Microfinance Institutions 1,500,000 5 October 2009
9105 Grant PAK Microfinance for the Poorest 2,000,000 30 January 2007
2281 Loan IND Rural Cooperative Credit Restructuring and Development Program 1,000,000,000 8 December 2006
4887 TA IND Capacity Building for Rural Cooperative Credit Structure Reform 2,000,000 8 December 2006
4837 TA BHU SME/Microenterprise Development Program: Financing Component 500,000 11 September 2006
9088 Grant PHI Developing Financial Cooperatives 900,000 14 March 2006
4761 TA SRI Microinsurance Sector Development 600,000 3 January 2006
4755 TA CAM Developing Deposit Services in Rural Cambodia 600,000 21 December 2005
9079 Grant INO Restoration of Microenterprise and Microfinance in Aceh 2,000,000 28 November 2005
2199 Loan PHI Microfinance Development Program 150,000,000 22 November 2005
4693 TA PHI Support the Implementation of the Microfinance Development Program 500,000 22 November 2005
9075 Grant AZE Mahalla Business Development 0 20 September 2005
4638 TA VIE Implementing the Regulatory and Supervisory Framework For Microfinance 250,000 29 August 2005
4544 TA PHI Enhancing Access of the Poor to Microfinance Services in Frontier Areas 250,000 23 December 2004
4509 TA TIM Strengthening Microfinance Operations 500,000 20 December 2004
4491 TA AZE Developing Microfinance Regulations and Collateral Framework 800,000 17 December 2004
4430 TA PRC Rural Finance Reforms and Development of Microfinance Institutions 1,000,000 9 November 2004
4247 TA IND Rural Finance Sector Restructuring and Development 1,000,000 12 December 2003
4238 TA VAN Rural and Microfinance Outreach 250,000 4 December 2003
4172 TA VAN Diagnostic Study for Improving Access to Affordable Credit 150,000 14 September 2003
4135 TA LAO Rural Finance Development 150,000 2 July 2003
2000 Loan TAJ Microfinance Systems Development Program (Program Loan) 4,000,000 26 June 2003
2001 Loan TAJ Microfinance Systems Development Program (Project Loan) 4,000,000 26 June 2003
4093 TA AZE Microfinance Sector Development 400,000 11 April 2003
4068 TA KGZ Capacity Building in Savings and Credit Unions and Microfinancial Systems 550,000 19 December 2002
1963 Loan UZB Small and Microfinance Development 20,000,000 9 December 2002
4021 TA UZB Developing Prudential Regulation and Supervision of Savings and Credit Unions 400,000 9 December 2002
3814 TA PHI Microfinance for Rural Development 560,000 19 December 2001
3810 TA INO Rural Microfinance 1,000,000 18 December 2001
1848 Loan MON Rural Finance 8,686,000 25 October 2001
3743 TA TIM Microfinance Information Technology Systems Development 150,000 17 October 2001
3741 TA VIE Framework for Microfinance Development 300,000 12 October 2001
3707 TA SRI Rural Finance Sector Development 550,000 24 August 2001
5984 RETA REG Microfinance Outreach Initiatives of the Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest 500,000 17 April 2001
3635 TA UZB Pilot Testing of Rural Savings and Credit Unions 150,000 5 March 2001
1805 Loan PAK Microfinance Sector Development Program - Program Loan 70,000,000 13 December 2000
1806 Loan PAK Microfinance Sector Development Program - Project Loan 80,000,000 13 December 2000
1802 Loan VIE Rural Enterprise Finance 80,000,000 12 December 2000
3568 TA VIE Support of Rural Business 1,000,000 12 December 2000
3556 TA TIM Strengthening the Microfinance Policy and Legal Framework 250,000 6 December 2000
1768 Loan PNG Microfinance and Employment 9,595,000 19 October 2000
3435 TA TIM Microfinance 150,000 10 May 2000
1741 Loan CAM Rural Credit and Savings 20,000,000 27 April 2000
3413 TA LAO Rural Finance Development (TA Cluster) 2,020,000 9 March 2000
3397 TA MON Rural Finance 700,000 2 February 2000
1723 Loan KGZ Financial Intermediation and Resource Mobilization Program 35,000,000 17 December 1999
3344 TA IND Strengthening Microfinance Institutions for Urban and Environmental Infrastructure Finance 500,000 17 December 2099
3315 TA PNG Microfinance and Employment 150,000 29 November 1999
3270 TA CAM Capacity Building for Rural Financial Services 1,450,000 5 October 1999
3254 TA UZB Rural Savings And Credit Union Development 600,000 9 September 1999
3206 TA VAN Rural Financial Services 250,000 16 June 1999
5836 RETA REG Consultations on the Bank's Microfinance Strategy 400,000 1 March 1999
3143 TA PRC International Symposium on Microfinance and Urban Unemployment In PRC 150,000 23 December 1998
3078 TA BAN Establishment of a Framework for Sustainable Microfinance 800,000 29 September 1998
1634 Loan BAN Rural Livelihood 42,600,000 29 September 1998
2991 TA VIE Second Rural Credit 150,000 24 February 1998
2953 TA THA Strengthening Project Loan Appraisal and Risk Management of the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives 600,000 19 December 1997
2939 TA PRC Reform of the Rural Credit Cooperative System 997,000 15 December 1997
2937 TA PAK Rural Microfinance 600,000 12 December 1997
1540 Loan THA Rural Enterprise Credit 200,000,000 18 September 1997
1529 Loan KGZ Rural Financial Institutions 12,500,000 21 August 1997
2836 TA NEP Rural Finance 500,000 6 August 1997
2818 TA CAM Rural Credit and Savings 600,000 26 June 1997
5723 RETA REG Fourth Consultative Group Forum 150,000 7 February 1997
2601 TA CAM Rural Credit Review 100,000 4 July 1996
1435 Loan PHI Rural Microenterprise Finance 20,000,000 23 April 1996
2558 TA PHI Strengthening Rural Microenterprise Finance 600,000 23 April 1996
2539 TA PRC All China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives 580,000 5 March 1996
2449 TA KAZ Study on Rural Credit and Savings 470,000 23 November 1995
2293 TA BAN Rural Livelihood 287,000 24 January 1995
2286 TA VIE Rural Finance 586,000 12 January 1995
2277(L)/ 1327 Grant INO Microcredit 1,000,000 29 December 1994
2214 TA PRC Cooperative Banking Development 600,000 1 December 1994
1327 Loan INO Microcredit 25,700,000 25 October 1994
1290 Loan MON Employment Generation 3,000,000 16 December 1993
2020 TA MON Institutional Enhancement for Employment Generation 598,000 16 December 1993
1849 TA INO Microcredit 455,000 23 February 1993
1840 TA MON Employment-generation 100,000 8 January 1993
1807 TA BAN Institutional Strengthening of Bangladesh Rural Development Board 600,000 17 December 1992
1617 TA PHI Rural Credit 640,000 28 November 1991
1067 Loan BAN Rural Women Employment Creation 8,000,000 13 December 1990
1161 TA INO Institutional Strengthening of Bank Umum Koperasi Indonesia 360,000 30 May 1989
940 Loan PHI NGO-Microcredit 8,000,000 22 December 1988
954 TA PAK Study of the Federal Bank for Cooperatives 350,000 12 February 1988
5207 RETA REG Study on Informal Credit Markets in Selected Developing Member Countries 350,000 11 April 1986
517 TA NEP Rural Cooperatives 250,000 27 May 1983

As of August 2014

Microinsurance

Microinsurance protects the poor from the impact of possible crises and unexpected shocks, such as death in the family, illness, or natural calamities. The target clients of microinsurance are typically those who are unable to afford traditional insurance products, with microinsurance premiums tailored to the living standards of the clientele. ADB supports projects that strengthen the capacity of government regulators and microinsurance providers in developing member countries.

Below is a list of ADB microinsurance-related projects.

Approval Number Type of Project Country Title of Project Amount (US$) Approval Date
7998 TA THA Development of a Strategic Framework for Financial Inclusion 1,500,000 15 December 2011
4761 TA SRI Microinsurance Sector Development 600,000 3 January 2006

As of August 2014

Financial market infrastructure development

Adequate financial infrastructure has been a major issue in the finance sector of countries in Asia and the Pacific. This includes legal, information, and regulatory and supervisory systems for financial institutions and markets. This is one of the focus areas of ADB’s microfinance strategy. Specifically, ADB focuses on information systems and training facilities for microfinance development, improvement of supervisory regulations, and development of self-regulation and performance standards of microfinance institutions.

Below is a list of ADB microfinance projects related to financial market infrastructure development from 27 May 1983 to 30 June 2014.

Approval Number Type of Project Country Title of Project Amount (US$) Approval Date
8587 TA VIE Supporting Microfinance Development 600,000 12 December 2013
8391 TA VIE Strengthening Microfinance Sector Operation and Supervision 1,000,000 21 June 2013
8336 TA VAN Expansion of Rural Financial Services 225,000 15 February 2013
9170 Grant KGZ Women's Entrepreneurship Development 1,500,000 14 January 2013
8250 TA REG Improving Financial Inclusion in Asia and the Pacific 750,000 6 December 2012
8224 TA INO Improving Access to Finance in Aceh and North Sumatra 800,000 8 November 2012
8108 TA VIE Supporting Microfinance Development Program 500,000 5 July 2012
2877 Loan VIE Microfinance Development Program - Subprogram 1 40,000,000 5 July 2012
7998 TA THA Development Of a Strategic Framework for Financial Inclusion 1,500,000 15 December 2011
7777 TA NEP Improving Access to Finance Sector Development Program 600,000 27 January 2011
9153 Grant BAN Institutional Support for Migrant Workers' Remittances 2,000,000 18 January 2011
7765 TA PRC Capacity Development of Partner Banks in Microfinance Wholesale Lending 225,000 29 December 2010
9152 Grant MON Promoting Inclusive Financial Services for the Poor 2,500,000 17 December 2010
7685 TA REG Market Study for A Non-sovereign Microfinance Funding Initiative 135,000 29 November 2010
2686 Loan PNG Microfinance Expansion 13,000,000 28 October 2010
226 Grant PNG Microfinance Expansion 6,000,000 28 October 2010
2634 Loan UZB Second Small and Microfinance Development 50,000,000 21 April 2010
2617 Loan IND Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprise Development 50,000,000 26 February 2010
7499 TA VIE Microfinance Sector Development Program 500,000 21 February 2010
9140 Grant VIE Formalizing Microfinance Institutions 1,500,000 5 October 2009
9105 Grant PAK Microfinance for the Poorest 2,000,000 30 January 2007
2281 Loan IND Rural Cooperative Credit Restructuring and Development Program 1,000,000,000 8 December 2006
4887 TA IND Capacity Building for Rural Cooperative Credit Structure Reform 2,000,000 8 December 2006
4837 TA BHU Sme/Microenterprise Development Program: Financing Component 500,000 11 September 2006
9088 Grant PHI Developing Financial Cooperatives 900,000 14 March 2006
4761 TA SRI Microinsurance Sector Development 600,000 3 January 2006
4755 TA CAM Developing Deposit Services in Rural Cambodia 600,000 21 December 2005
4693 TA PHI Support the Implementation of the Microfinance Development Program 500,000 22 November 2005
9075 Grant AZE Mahalla Business Development 0 20 September 2005
6254 RETA REG Joint Conference on Worker Remittances and Poverty Reduction with Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Development Programme 150,000 30 August 2005
4544 TA PHI Enhancing Access of the Poor to Microfinance Services in Frontier Areas 250,000 23 December 2004
4509 TA TIM Strengthening Microfinance Operations 500,000 20 December 2004
4430 TA PRC Rural Finance Reforms and Development of Microfinance Institutions 1,000,000 9 November 2004
4247 TA IND Rural Finance Sector Restructuring and Development 1,000,000 12 December 2003
4238 TA VAN Rural and Microfinance Outreach 250,000 4 December 2003
4172 TA VAN Diagnostic Study for Improving Access to Affordable Credit 150,000 14 September 2003
4135 TA LAO Rural Finance Development 150,000 2 July 2003
4132 TA TAJ Institutional Strengthening of Microfinance Systems 640,000 26 June 2003
2000 Loan TAJ Microfinance Systems Development Program (Program Loan) 4,000,000 26 June 2003
2001 Loan TAJ Microfinance Systems Development Program (Project Loan) 4,000,000 26 June 2003
4093 TA AZE Microfinance Sector Development 400,000 11 April 2003
4068 TA KGZ Capacity Building in Savings and Credit Unions and Microfinancial Systems 550,000 19 December 2002
1963 Loan UZB Small and Microfinance Development 20,000,000 9 December 2002
4021 TA UZB Developing Prudential Regulation and Supervision of Savings and Credit Unions 400,000 9 December 2002
3814 TA PHI Microfinance for Rural Development 560,000 19 December 2001
3810 TA INO Rural Microfinance 1,000,000 18 December 2001
1848 Loan MON Rural Finance 8,686,000 25 October 2001
3743 TA TIM Microfinance Information Technology Systems Development 150,000 17 October 2001
3741 TA VIE Framework for Microfinance Development 300,000 12 October 2001
3707 TA SRI Rural Finance Sector Development 550,000 24 August 2001
5984 RETA REG Microfinance Outreach Initiatives of the Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest 500,000 17 April 2001
3635 TA UZB Pilot Testing of Rural Savings and Credit Unions 150,000 5 March 2001
1805 Loan PAK Microfinance Sector Development Program - Program Loan 70,000,000 13 December 2000
1806 Loan PAK Microfinance Sector Development Program - Project Loan 80,000,000 13 December 2000
1802 Loan VIE Rural Enterprise Finance 80,000,000 12 December 2000
3568 TA VIE Support of Rural Business 1,000,000 12 December 2000
3556 TA TIM Strengthening the Microfinance Policy and Legal Framework 250,000 6 December 2000
5952 RETA REG Commercialization of Microfinance 700,000 20 November 2000
5950 RETA REG Financial Services for Poor Women 600,000 16 November 2000
1768 Loan PNG Microfinance and Employment 9,595,000 19 October 2000
5929 RETA REG Microcredit Summit Asia and Pacific Regional Meeting 140,000 5 September 2000
3435 TA TIM Microfinance 150,000 10 May 2000
1741 Loan CAM Rural Credit and Savings 20,000,000 27 April 2000
3413 TA LAO Rural Finance Development (TA Cluster) 2,020,000 9 March 2000
3397 TA MON Rural Finance 700,000 2 February 2000
1723 Loan KGZ Financial Intermediation and Resource Mobilization Program 35,000,000 17 December 1999
3344 TA IND Strengthening Microfinance Institutions for Urban and Environmental Infrastructure Finance 500,000 17 December 1999
3315 TA PNG Microfinance and Employment 150,000 29 November 1999
3270 TA CAM Capacity Building for Rural Financial Services 1,450,000 5 October 1999
3254 TA UZB Rural Savings and Credit Union Development 600,000 9 September 1999
3206 TA VAN Rural Financial Services 250,000 16 June 1999
5836 RETA REG Consultations on the Bank's Microfinance Strategy 400,000 1 March 1999
3143 TA PRC International Symposium on Microfinance and Urban Unemployment in PRC 150,000 23 December 1998
3078 TA BAN Establishment of a Framework for Sustainable Microfinance 800,000 29 September 1998
1634 Loan BAN Rural Livelihood 42,600,000 29 September 1998
2991 TA VIE Second Rural Credit 150,000 24 February 1998
2953 TA THA Strengthening Project Loan Appraisal and Risk Management of the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives 600,000 19 December 1997
2939 TA PRC Reform of the Rural Credit Cooperative System 997,000 15 December 1997
2937 TA PAK Rural Microfinance 600,000 12 December 1997
1540 Loan THA Rural Enterprise Credit 200,000,000 18 September 1997
1529 Loan KGZ Rural Financial Institutions 12,500,000 21 August 1997
2836 TA NEP Rural Finance 500,000 6 August 1997
2818 TA CAM Rural Credit and Savings 600,000 26 June 1997
2601 TA CAM Rural Credit Review 100,000 4 July 1996
1435 Loan PHI Rural Microenterprise Finance 20,000,000 23 April 1996
2558 TA PHI Strengthening Rural Microenterprise Finance 600,000 23 April 1996
2539 TA PRC All China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives 580,000 5 March 1996
2449 TA KAZ Study on Rural Credit and Savings 470,000 23 November 1995
2293 TA BAN Rural Livelihood 287,000 24 January 1995
2286 TA VIE Rural Finance 586,000 12 January 1995
1327 Grant INO Microcredit 1,000,000 29 December 1994
2214 TA PRC Cooperative Banking Development 600,000 1 December 1994
1327 Loan INO Microcredit 25,700,000 25 October 1994
1290 Loan MON Employment Generation 3,000,000 16 December 1993
2020 TA MON Institutional Enhancement for Employment Generation 598,000 16 December 1993
1961 TA VIE Development of Small-Scale Rural Credit 568,000 6 October 1993
1849 TA INO Microcredit 455,000 23 February 1993
1840 TA MON Employment-generation 100,000 8 January 1993
1810 TA PHI Institutional Strengthening of Cooperatives 1,400,000 22 December 1992
1679 TA LAO Preparatory Study for a Pilot Micro-Credit and Training Project 100,000 26 March 1992
1617 TA PHI Rural Credit 640,000 28 November 1991
1067 Loan BAN Rural Women Employment Creation 8,000,000 13 December 1990
1161 TA INO Institutional Strengthening of Bank Umum Koperasi Indonesia 360,000 30 May 1989
940 Loan PHI NGO-Microcredit 8,000,000 22 December 1988
954 TA PAK Study of the Federal Bank for Cooperatives 350,000 12 February 1988
5207 RETA REG Study on Informal Credit Markets in Selected Developing Member Countries 350,000 11 April 1986
517 TA NEP Rural Cooperatives 250,000 27 May 1983

As of August 2014

Financial literacy

Financial literacy is the ability to understand basic information about financial products and services, while financial capability refers to the ability to apply financial knowledge and understanding. This is particularly important for poor households that are more vulnerable to future economic shocks and need greater protection from fraud. ADB supports financial awareness building among poor households and basic literacy training to access formal financial services.

Below is a list of ADB microfinance projects related to financial literacy from 27 May 1983 to 30 June 2014.

Approval Number Type of Project Country Title of Project Amount (US$) Approval Date
9170 Grant KGZ Women's Entrepreneurship Development 1,500,000 14 January 2013
8250 TA REG Improving Financial Inclusion in Asia and the Pacific 750,000 6 December 2012
8108 TA VIE Supporting Microfinance Development Program 500,000 5 July 2012
2877 Loan VIE Microfinance Development Program - Subprogram 1 40,000,000 5 July 2012
8108 TA VIE Supporting Microfinance Development Program 500,000 5 July 2012
7998 TA THA Development of a Strategic Framework for Financial Inclusion 1,500,000 15 December 2011
9153 Grant BAN Institutional Support for Migrant Workers' Remittances 2,000,000 18 January 2011
7765 TA PRC Capacity Development 0f Partner Banks in Microfinance Wholesale Lending 225,000 29 December 2010
9152 Grant MON Promoting Inclusive Financial Services for the Poor 2,500,000 17 December 2010
226 Grant PNG Microfinance Expansion 6,000,000 28 October 2010
2686 Loan PNG Microfinance Expansion 13,000,000 28 October 2010
9105 Grant PAK Microfinance for the Poorest 2,000,000 30 January 2007
9088 Grant PHI Developing Financial Cooperatives 900,000 14 March 2006
4755 TA CAM Developing Deposit Services in Rural Cambodia 600,000 21 December 2005
2199 Loan PHI Microfinance Development Program 150,000,000 22 November 2005
4693 TA PHI Support the Implementation of the Microfinance Development Program 500,000 22 November 2005
4638 TA VIE Implementing the Regulatory and Supervisory Framework for Microfinance 250,000 29 August 2005
4544 TA PHI Enhancing Access of the Poor to Microfinance Services in Frontier Areas 250,000 23 December 2004
4491 TA AZE Developing Microfinance Regulations and Collateral Framework 800,000 17 December 2004
3635 TA UZB Pilot Testing of Rural Savings and Credit Unions 150,000 5 March 2001
5952 RETA REG Commercialization of Microfinance 700,000 20 November 2000
5950 RETA REG Financial Services for Poor Women 600,000 16 November 2000
3413 TA LAO Rural Finance Development (TA Cluster) 2,020,000 9 March 2000
3344 TA IND Strengthening Microfinance Institutions for Urban and Environmental Infrastructure Finance 500,000 17 December 1999
1634 Loan BAN Rural Livelihood 42,600,000 29 September 1998
2539 TA PRC All China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives 580,000 5 March 1996
1810 TA PHI Institutional Strengthening Of Cooperatives 1,400,000 22 December 1992
1807 TA BAN Institutional Strengthening of Bangladesh Rural Development Board 600,000 17 December 1992
1067 Loan BAN Rural Women Employment Creation 8,000,000 13 December 1990

As of August 2014

Green finance

Green finance describes a broad range of funding services for environment-oriented technologies, projects, industries or businesses. This includes products such as credit cards, loans, and insurance that encourage customers to use more sustainable environment-friendly practices. ADB supports green finance; for instance, it funded a microfinance credit line for energy-efficient households and microenterprises in Tajikistan.

Below are ADB microfinance projects related to green finance from 27 May 1983 to 30 June 2014.

Approval Number Type of Project Country Title of Project Amount (US$) Approval Date
2449 TA KAZ Study on Rural Credit and Savings 470,000 23 November 1995
1810 TA PHI Institutional Strengthening of Cooperatives 1,400,000 22 December 1992
1617 TA PHI Rural Credit 640,000 28 November 1991

As of August 2014

Anti-money laundering

The complexity of financial operations and the continuous development of the microfinance sector have allowed people to use formal finance institutions to launder ill-gotten funds, finance terrorism, and conduct other illegal activities. In response, more and more countries are capping savings balances and limiting transaction sizes. ADB supports the establishment of anti-money laundering policies in partnership with other agencies.

Studies and conferences

Below is a list of ADB microfinance studies and conferences:

Approval Number Type of Project Country Title of Project Amount (US$) Approval Date
1673 TA MLD Study the Feasibility of Establishing a Long Term Credit Bank in Maldives 95,000 26 February 1992
1137 Loan PHI Second NGO Microcredit 30,000,000 28 November 1991
1360 TA PHI Second NGO Microcredit 98,900 24 August 1990

As of August 2014