With infrastructure development as its core activity, ADB aims to optimize health impacts of infrastructure operations - especially in water and sanitation - and to mitigate possible adverse health impacts such HIV and road accidents in transport projects by improving project design and implementation, and by monitoring health and social indicators, in particular for women and the poor.

HIV/AIDS prevention

ADB recognizes its responsibility to reduce the risks of spreading HIV and other communicable diseases. It has been spearheading the work on HIV prevention in the transport sector across the region.

The Sustainable Transport Initiative confirms the need for mainstreaming HIV prevention in transport sector projects. With support from both the Australian and Swedish Government, ADB has been able to provide technical assistance (TA) on HIV/AIDS prevention activities and, at the same time, build the capacity of key ministries in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) to mitigate risks associated with HIV/AIDS.

ADB's practice guidelines aim to assist development partners in harmonizing and standardizing their collective efforts in HIV prevention and risk mitigation in infrastructure developments in the GMS. It was jointly developed with a broad range of stakeholders, especially drawing on the practical experience and lessons learned of those who have implemented projects on the ground.

ADB launched a TA on HIV and AIDS prevention in ADB infrastructure and mining sector in Mongolia. The TA has three components: (i) provision of HIV prevention services, (ii) institutional capacity building; and (iii) monitoring and valuation.

Water and sanitation

Collaboration with water and sanitation sector for the inclusion of health outcomes in the project design is also a major focus. ADB approved a $35 million loan to Indonesia to reduce environmental pollution of surface water and shallow groundwater in Medan and Yogyakarta that will benefit the public health and improve the quality of life in these cities.