Demographic transition does not have a direct effect on government balance, but instead has an indirect effect through higher government expenditure.
The disconnect between disaster losses and disaster initiatives indicates that governments are unable to recognize the long-term economic impacts of disasters or the role of hazard mitigation.
ASEAN could learn from the European Union’s experience, particularly under the current global challenges.
Demography is a principal driving force for economic growth and social development.
Asia and Europe have taken differing approaches to economic integration, with Asia choosing loose economic cooperation based on bilateral and regional economic agreements and Europe choosing to strengthen institutionalization.