The COVID-19 pandemic has had different impacts on various monetary policy instruments in Indonesia.
While the ultimate resolution of COVID-19 may lead to a market correction as uncertainty declines, there may be some permanent effects on financial markets and capital flows.
The ASEAN-5 + 3 multilateral monetary policy coordination is the best feasible policy option for all the ASEAN-5 + 3 countries.
Cash demand tends to grow with a decline in the policy rates and with an advancement of aging.
Asia and the Pacific region faced an outflow of portfolio investment during the start of the global financial crisis and a new wave of cross-border portfolio inflows after the cris.