Inequality and income distribution are key drivers of the middle-income trap, while the issue of aging is less important.
Income inequality increases with population aging due to a shrinking labor force.
While wider roads or more lanes can reduce vehicle emissions and help people be more mobile and efficient, longer roads can increase emissions, although not in a statistically significant way.
Income polarization rather than income inequality explains crime rates in the People’s Republic of China.
Most technical progress in the People's Republic of China has been capital biased, leading to greater inequality.
Structural change has profound effects on inequality and important policy implications for developing different economic sectors.
This paper estimates income polarization in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) from 1978 to 2010 and decomposes the estimated polarization by population subgroup.