ADB’s Support for Urban Infrastructure and Services in India, 2012–2022

Evaluation Document | 21 November 2023
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ADB’s Support for Urban Infrastructure and Services in India, 2012–2022

India has one of the largest and fastest-growing urban populations in the world, but faces several issues in providing adequate infrastructure and services to its cities.  The percentage of the population living in urban areas increased from 17.3% in 1951 to 31.6% in 2011 and is projected to reach 37.0% by 2031. Indian cities suffer from increasing congestion and pressure on urban services and housing. The Government of India, through its flagship programs and fiscal transfers, encourages state governments to undertake legislative and institutional reforms and help build the capacity of urban local bodies in delivering services. ADB has committed $4.15 billion to the water and other urban infrastructure and services sector and $2.64 billion to the urban transport sector in India during 2012–2022, mainly for water supply, sewerage, flood protection, metro rail, and rapid rail transit projects. 
 
This evaluation assesses how well ADB has supported India in addressing its urban development challenges in the water and other urban infrastructure and services and urban transport sectors in 2012–2022, and provides recommendations for improvement.