Environmental Mitigation Measures in Selected Bank-Financed Projects | Asian Development Bank

Environmental Mitigation Measures in Selected Bank-Financed Projects

Evaluation Document | 31 December 1998

This evaluation assesses the effectiveness of measures included in selected ADB-financed projects to mitigate adverse environmental impacts.

Environmental mitigation measures have been included on a selective basis in ADB projects since the early 1980s, and good progress has been made in integrating environmental considerations to improve project designs. However, the effectiveness and implementation of environmental mitigation measures have not been evaluated.

The study examines whether environmental mitigation measures have produced the anticipated benefits, and if not, what factors contributed to the failure. The purpose is to examine whether ADB is emphasizing the correct expenditure and mitigation measures, and what can be done to implement them more effectively.

The study focuses on mostly thermal energy generation projects in the People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. These four countries account for about half of all ADB spending in the power sector.

Among the main findings were that environmental personnel, management plans, and monitoring programs had variable success in applying environmental mitigation measures during operations phases in the reviewed projects, and that more attention needs to be paid to environmental protection in the planning and feasibility study stages.

The main recommendations include the following:

  • ADB should consider more detailed itemizing and earmarking greater portions of loans or project financing to implementing environmental protection measures.
  • ADB should promote annual external audits of large power plants to ensure compliance with environmental regulations.
  • ADB should support public participation in all aspects of projects, especially during the planning and design stage.


  • Executive Summary
  • Introduction
  • Main Findings from Case Study Projects
  • Environmental Mitigation Measures: Major Issues
  • Conclusions and Recommendations