Increasing Penetration of Variable Renewable Energy: Lessons for Asia and the Pacific
Variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies that harness solar, wind, and other intermittent energy resources are among the front runners for mitigating climate change. However, the timing and level of power generated from VRE installations depend on resource availability and are independent of the variations of power demand. VRE output is intermittent and comes with a low marginal cost. This unique combination of VRE characteristics will increasingly influence power system design, performance, and economics as VRE penetration increases. This paper discusses approaches for reducing and managing the mismatch between power supply and demand as VRE penetration increases. In so doing, it refers to policies and regulations, technology choices and investments, and operation and maintenance practices. It makes suggestions for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and its client countries from experience gained worldwide, in line with ADB’s Energy Policy.
- Variable Renewable Energy in Asia and the Pacific
- Overview of Grid Integration Options Worldwide
- The Next Phase