Indonesia: Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Project Phase II
This report presents the findings of an evaluation of Indonesia’s Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Project (COREMAP) Phase II. The project aimed to introduce and implement coastal resource management through (i) strengthening the capacity of provincial and district institutions to formulate coral reef management policies and strategies; and (ii) developing community-based resource management by improving monitoring, control, and surveillance, promoting social infrastructure, and supporting microenterprises.
COREMAP II was the first project to introduce marine protected areas (MPAs) in the country and bring the concept of conservation to project provinces. The project developed policies and strategies for coral reef management and helped to implement coral reef management plans (CRMPs) at national, provincial, and district levels. Monitoring, control, and surveillance activities were introduced in line with the CRMPs. As a result, illegal and destructive fishing practices were notably reduced. By the end of the project, live coral reef coverage had increased in three of the eight project districts, but this trend did not continue because of subsequent coral bleaching events. The project helped to increase average household income, with four of the 18 locations achieving the target increase of 20%. The evaluation estimated the economic internal rate of return, indicating that the project was economically viable. Overall, the project was assessed as successful. The main challenge remains to provide adequate resources for implementing community-based coral reef management. Much of the project infrastructure has become nonfunctional and only a few microenterprises have survived. In the absence of resources, sustainable implementation of CRMPs and community engagement are not fully ensured.
The decentralization Law No. 23, issued after the project in 2014, shifted the institutional responsibilities for marine resources management from the district to the provincial level. Provinces need to work closely with districts and develop the capacity to manage coastal resources and address illegal fishing. Given that comprehensive ecosystem management is essential, the Government of Indonesia should urgently address mangrove conservation at both national and provincial levels, in partnership with research institutions.