India | Livable Cities
Improving Urban Mobility in Congested Mumbai
India’s Mumbai will soon have a modern public transport system that will help decongest existing public transportation in the city. The ADB project, cofinanced by the New Development Bank, will enhance urban mobility in a city of 12 million and provide some 7.5 million daily suburban commuters with a modern, safer, and more comfortable transportation.
- ADB $926 million
- Government of India $489 million
- Financing Partner
- New Development Bank $260 million
01 March 2019
Expected Partnership Results
Mumbai, the financial capital of India, is crucial to India’s economy. The city belongs to the state of Maharashtra, which accounts for 15% of the country’s gross domestic product. Mumbai alone accounts for 40% of the state’s GDP. Against the backdrop of this economic significance is the artery of the city, its rail system.
The railway is the primary means of transport for 12 million of Mumbai’s inhabitants. The rail system carries the burden of the daily mobility of its 7.5 million people in its suburban networks. Called in local parlance as ‘local trains,’ the suburban rail network is highly congested and unsafe. Often, some 5,000 Mumbaikars pack themselves in a carriage meant for 1,750, to get to work and get back home.
Aiming to address the problem, the Government of Maharashtra came up with a masterplan in 2013. The plan includes developing a metro rail system that would supplement the highly congested suburban railway. Twelve lines are planned for metro rail development covering over 276 km.
ADB is supporting the government’s Metro expansion plans by financing two of the state’s proposed lines. The India: Mumbai Metro Rail Systems Project, which is among the largest infrastructure loans in ADB history, is cofinanced by the New Development Bank.
Seeing the challenges that Mumbai is facing, the government developed a plan for 12 metro lines with a total length of 276 km. One of these lines, Line 1, was completed in 2014 and carries about 400,000 passengers a day and has reduced travel time along its east-west route from 71 minutes to 21 minutes.
The loan, which NDB is cofinancing, will fund lines 2A (going from Dahisar to D.N. Nagar), 2B (going from D.N. Nagar Bandra Mandale), and 7 (going from Dahisar [East] to Andheri [East]), totaling about 58 kilometers. The project will fund 63 six-car trains, signaling and safety systems, and help establish a new dedicated metro operations organization to manage the entire metro network in Mumbai. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) will implement the project.
The project also has value-adding features that enhance the benefits of the new lines, including safety and gender inclusiveness. Mumbai’s suburban rail system records many injuries and fatalities every year. To address this, part of ADB’s funding ensures that passenger safety is paramount with the procurement of state-of-the-art carriages equipped with surveillance systems and real-time track monitoring to ensure safety. The new railway lines also have features that benefit women, including women-only carriages, mobile applications for women’s security, separate ticket counters, and reporting desks to address incidents of harassment. There will also be station and carriage facilities for elderly or differently-abled passengers, including priority e-ticket counters.
To date, the following has been undertaken:
- Gender Equality and Social Inclusion Action Plan completed
- Social and Environmental Due Diligence Reports completed
- Maha Mumbai Metro Operation Corporation Limited established to manage operation and maintenance
Once operational by the end of 2022, an estimated 2 million passengers a day will use the two new lines, travelling in improved safety and comfort. It will also reduce emissions from vehicles, with carbon dioxide emissions expected to fall by about 166,000 tons a year.