Japan

For Japan, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Finance handle official development assistance through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). JICA provides extensive development support to its neighbors in the Asia and Pacific region in the forms of loan aid, technical cooperation, and grant aid. Its operational focus areas are strengthening the human capacity of individuals who will be key players in their countries’ development; fortifying partnerships between actors in Japan who are involved in, and contributing to, development cooperation and regional vitalization; contributing to international commitments and serving as a leader in the international community; and strengthening security measures.

At a Glance

Cumulative Project-Specific Cofinancing

$15.7 billion

  

Cumulative Trust Funds Contribution

$2.1 billion

  

2020 Project-Specific Cofinancing

  • $1.8 billion

2020 Trust Funds Contribution

  • $130.1 million

In December 2015, ADB and JICA signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Strategic Partnership for Sustainable and Inclusive Development through Promotion of Quality Infrastructure Investment in Asia and the Pacific. Under this partnership, ADB and JICA established the Leading Asia’s Private Sector Infrastructure Fund (LEAP) and promoted quality public infrastructure development in the region through a total of $10 billion in cofinancing. In May 2017, ADB and JICA also signed an MOU for Strategic Partnership for Sustainable, Resilient, and Inclusive Development through Strengthening Health Security and Promotion of Universal Health Coverage in Asia and the Pacific.

Since 2000, the Government of Japan has contributed annually to the Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction (JFPR), the primary vehicle for Japan’s project grant assistance through ADB. By 2010, JFPR’s scope was expanded to include technical assistance (TA) projects. Total contributions as of 31 December 2020 amounted to $930.6 million, comprising 200 grant projects (equivalent to $589 million) and 287 JFPR TA projects (equivalent to $367.6 million) that had been signed. In 2020, the COVID-19 Window was created under the JFPR to help ADB member countries strengthen their capacity to contain the spread of COVID-19, with $75 million made available. As of year-end, two TA projects (equivalent to $4 million) had been signed. The JFPR, the largest single-partner trust fund supporting poverty reduction and related social development activities, aligns with and contributes to achieving ADB’s development priorities in the region.

In addition, Japan provides scholarships under the Japan Scholarship Program (ADB-JSP), established in 1988 to provide well-qualified citizens of ADB member countries to undertake graduate studies in selected fields at ADB-JSP partner institutions. To date, a total of $191.6 million for 4,039 scholarships have been awarded, of which 1,566 (39%) are for women scholars.

Japan has also supported ADB’s private sector operations through the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), wholly owned by the Government of Japan. The JBIC supports projects that promote global economic development, secure natural resources, improve competitiveness of Japanese industries, promote Japanese companies and technologies overseas, and prevent market disruptions. On 26 November 2015, ADB and the JBIC signed a Memorandum of Agreement to promote quality infrastructure investments in the Asia and Pacific region and enhance dialogue on topics such as renewable energy, social infrastructure, and risk allocation. In 2019, ADB and the JBIC cofinanced the Eastern Economic Corridor Independent Power Project which seeks to build an independent power plant in Thailand.

Meanwhile, as of December 2020, ADB’s Trade Finance Program (TFP) had supported 1,923 Japanese export and import transactions (through Japanese and non-Japanese banks) to developing Asia valued at over $980.1 million. Exports and imports were to 16 countries, but mostly to Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Viet Nam. Isolating TFP’s work with Japanese banks, the TFP works with three banks domiciled in Japan and has provided guarantees supporting $1.8 billion in trade in over 2,277 transactions. The TFP has mobilized $287.6 million in cofinancing with banks operating in Japan. This cofinancing helps leverage ADB resources and brings more support for developing members.

Active Trust Funds

1 January 2014–31 December 2020 Cofinanced Projects
Country Project Cofinancing Amount ($ million) Type of Cofinancinga
Afghanistan Arghandab Integrated Water Resources Development Investment Program 2 TA
Armenia Second Water Supply and Sanitation Improvement Sector 2 TA
Solid Waste Management Solutions for Remote and Small Communities 0.6 TA
Bangladesh Bangladesh Power System Enhancement and Efficiency Improvement 2 G
Capacity Building of Management in Education and Skills Programs 1.5 TA
Capacity Development for Renewable Energy Investment Programming and Implementation 1.5 TA
Cornerstone Investment in a Leading Power Developer 15 E
Pilot Project on Weather Index-Based Crop Insurance 2 G
Railway Sector Investment Program – Tranche 4 116.7 L
Rupsha 800-Megawatt Combined Cycle Power Plant 1.5 G
Second Public-Private Infrastructure Development Facility 96 L
South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation Dhaka-Northwest Corridor Road Project Phase 2 – Tranche 1 242.5 L
South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation Road Connectivity 279.3 L
Southwest Transmission Grid Expansion 7 G
Strengthening Capacities of Small and Medium-Sized Stakeholders to Access Bank Financing and Services 2 TA
Strengthening Monitoring and Enforcement in the Meghna River for Dhaka's Sustainable Water Supply 1 TA
Supporting Fourth Primary Education Development Program 0.8 TA
COVID-19 Active Response and Expenditure Support Program - Bangladesh 331.1 L
Support to Quality Enhancement in Primary Education 1.2 TA
Bhutan Adapting to Climate Change through Integrated Water Resources Management 1.5 TA
Decentralized Coordination and Partnerships for Gender Equality Results 1.5 TA
Institutional Strengthening for Skills Development 0.8 TA
South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation Green Power Investment Program 1.5 TA
Alternative Renewable Energy Pilot 3 G
Improving Market Linkages for Cottage and Small Industries 2 TA
Cambodia Agricultural Value Chain Infrastructure Improvement 1.5 TA
Agricultural Value Chain Competitiveness and Safety Enhancement 3 G
Capacity Development for Public-Private Partnerships 1 TA
Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction 2.5 G
Institutional Capacity Building in the Road Sector 1.5 TA
Provincial Water Supply and Sanitation 10 G
Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector – Additional Financing 2 TA
Strengthening Capacity Development for National Skills Development 1 TA
Strengthening Capacity for Improved Implementation of Externally Funded Projects in Cambodia 1.4 TA
Strengthening Coordination for Management of Disasters 2 TA
Supporting Sustainable Integrated Urban Public Transport Development 1.5 TA
COVID-19 Active Response and Expenditure Support Program - Cambodia 241.6 L
India Capacity Building for Supporting Human Capital Development in Meghalaya 2 TA
Capacity Building for the Additional Skill Acquisition Program 1.5 TA
Capacity Building of the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency 0.8 TA
Capacity Building of the National Skill Development Agency 1.5 TA
Clean Energy Finance Investment Program – Tranche 1  280 L
Madhya Pradesh Skills Development 2 TA
Preparing the Bond Guarantee Fund for India 0.8 TA
ReNew Clean Energy 101.5 L
Solar Park Development and Transmission Sector Project 1 TA
Strengthening Capacity of the National Urban Health Mission 2 TA
Supporting Rajasthan's Productive Clusters in the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor 1 TA
Supporting the Preparation and Implementation of the Comprehensive Integrated Master Plan of the Vizag-Chennai Industrial Corridor 2 TA
Tamil Nadu Urban Flagship Investment Program – Tranche 1 2 G
West Bengal Drinking Water Sector Improvement 3 G
Assam Power Sector Investment Program - Tranche 3 2 G
Delhi-Meerut Regional Rapid Transit System Investment - Tranche 1 3 G
Enhancing Community Participation, Gender Mainstreaming, and Institutional Capacity Building of Uttar Pradesh Power Corporation Limited 1.5 TA
Meghalaya Power Distribution Sector Improvement 2 G
Strengthening Capacity for Comprehensive Primary Health Care in Urban Areas 2 TA
Indonesia Eastern Indonesia Renewable Energy – Phase 1 56.4 L
Eastern Indonesia Renewable Energy – Phase 2 5.8 L
Eastern Indonesia Sustainable Energy Access Sector 1.4 TA
Jawa-1 Liquefied Natural Gas-to-Power 120 L
Leveraging Information and Communication Technology for Irrigated Agricultural Information 2 TA
Maternity and Child Care Hospital 9.3 E
Muara Laboh Geothermal Power 20 L
COVID-19 Active Response and Expenditure Support Program - Indonesia 467.2 L
Sustainable Energy Access in Eastern Indonesia — Electricity Grid Development Program (Phase 2) 6 G
Kazakhstan Astana Integrated Water Master Plan 1.2 TA
Institutional Support to the National Quality Center for Road Assets 1 TA
Kyrgyz Republic Climate Resilience and Disaster Risk Reduction in Water Resources Management 1.1 TA
Strengthening the Enabling Environment for Public-Private Partnerships 1 TA
Lao People's Democratic Republic Strengthening Access to Finance for Micro, Small, and Medium-Sized Enterprises 1.5 TA
Strengthening Capacity for Health Sector Governance Reforms 2 TA
Strengthening Capacity to Develop the Employment Service System 1.5 TA
Sustainable Rural Infrastructure and Watershed Management Sector 1.5 TA
Maldives Enhancing Tax Administration Capacity 0.9 TA
Greater Malé Environmental Improvement and Waste Management-Improving Community-Based Solid Waste Management in Small Outer Islands of Zone 3 2 G
Preparing Outer Islands for Sustainable Energy Development – Additional Financing 5 G
COVID-19 Active Response and Expenditure Support Program - Maldives 47.4 L
Greater Male Waste-to-Energy 10 G
Mongolia Combating Domestic Violence against Women and Children 3 G
Community Vegetable Farming for Livelihood Improvement 3 G
Concessions for Ulaanbaatar's Municipal Services 0.7 TA
Conservation of Forest Genetic Resources 0.5 TA
Development of the Health Sector Master Plan (2019-2027) 1 TA
Education Sector Development 1 TA
Energy Efficiency and Urban Environment Improvement Project 2 TA
Ensuring Inclusiveness and Service Delivery for Persons with Disabilities 1 TA
Gender-Responsive Sector and Local Development Policies and Actions 0.7 TA
Green Urban Planning 0.6 TA
Implementing Innovative Approaches for Improved Water Governance 1 TA
Improving Access to Health Services for Disadvantaged Groups 1 TA
Improving School Dormitory Environment for Primary Students in Western Region 3 G
Integrated Livelihoods Improvement and Sustainable Tourism in Khuvsgul Lake National Park 3 G
Managing Soil Pollution in Ger Areas through Improved On-Site Sanitation 2.8 G
Preparing the Aimag and Soum Centers Regional Development Investment Program 1.5 TA
Promoting Employment Opportunities for People with Disabilities 2 G
Strategic Planning for Peatlands 0.4 TA
Strengthening Community Resilience to Dzud and Forest and Steppe Fires 3 G
Supporting Agriculture Value Chain 2 TA
Supporting the Development of an Education Sector Master Plan 0.6 TA
Sustainable Forest Management to Improve Livelihood of Local Communities 2 TA
Sustainable Tourism Development 1.1 TA
Sustaining Access to and Quality of Education during Economic Difficulties 0.8 TA
Transparency and Efficiency in Public Financial Management 1.1 TA
Tuul River Improvement 1 TA
Ulaanbaatar Affordable Housing and Urban Renewal 1 TA
Upscaling Renewable Energy Sector 6 G
Improving Transport Services in Ger Areas 2 G
Managing Solid Waste in Secondary Cities 2 G
Strengthening Capacity on Disaster Risk Assessment, Reduction and Transfer Instruments in Mongolia 2 TA
Strengthening Integrated Early Warning System in Mongolia 0.5 TA
Support for Inclusive Education 2 G
Supporting Renewable Energy Development 1.3 TA
Ulaanbaatar Community Food Waste Recycling 3 G
Vegetable Production and Irrigated Agriculture 2 G
Myanmar Capacity Development for Project Implementation 2 TA
Economic Empowerment of the Poor and Women in the East-West Economic Corridor 3 G
Emergency Support for Chin State Livelihoods Restoration 10 G
Enhancing Rural Livelihoods and Incomes 12 G
Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Capacity Building for HIV/AIDs Prevention 10 G
Greater Mekong Subregion East-West Economic Corridor Eindu to Kawkareik Road Improvement 284.9 L
Greater Mekong Subregion East-West Economic Corridor Highway Development 2 TA
Second Greater Mekong Subregion Highway Modernization 254.8 L
Improving Road Network Management and Safety 2 TA
Off-Grid Renewable Energy Demonstration 2 TA
Power Transmission Improvement 552.4 L
Pro-Poor Community Infrastructure and Basic Services 4 G
Skills Development for Inclusive Growth 2 TA
Strengthening Institutions for a Better Investment Climate 1.5 TA
Nepal Disaster Risk Reduction and Livelihood Restoration for Earthquake-Affected Communities 15 G
Earthquake Emergency Assistance 115.3 L
South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation Customs Reform and Modernization for Trade Facilitation 1 TA
South Asia Tourism Infrastructure Development – Additional Financing 3 G
Strengthening the Capacity of Nepal's Energy Sector to Deliver Gender Equality and Social Inclusion Results 2 TA
Supporting School Sector Development Plan 3 G
Pakistan Balochistan Water Resources Development 1.1 TA
Climate Resilient Water Resources Management 2 TA
Institutional Transformation of the Punjab Irrigation Department to Water Resources Department 2 TA
Provincial Strategy for Inclusive and Sustainable Urban Growth 2 TA
Sustainable Energy Sector Reform Program – Subprogram 1 49 L
Sustainable Energy Sector Reform Program – Subprogram 2 41.3 L
Palau Disaster Resilient Clean Energy Financing 3 G
Philippines Climate Resilience and Green Growth in Critical Watersheds 1.8 TA
Emergency Assistance and Early Recovery for Poor Municipalities Affected by Typhoon Yolanda 20 G
Emergency Assistance for Reconstruction and Recovery of Marawi 3 G
Enhancing Capacities for the KALAHI-CIDSS National Community-Driven Development 1.5 TA
Implementing the Senior High School Support Program 1.5 TA
Railway Projects Implementation Support and Institutional Strengthening 2 TA
Strengthening Evaluation and Fiscal Cost Management of Public-Private Partnerships 2 TA
Strengthening Treasury Operations and Capital Market Reform 0.5 TA
Malolos-Clark Railway—Tranche 1 2,011 L
Strengthening the Transition of Vulnerable Communities Affected by the Malolos-Clark Railway Project 2 L
COVID-19 Active Response and Expenditure Support Program 463.3 L
Sri Lanka Cluster Development and Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Finance Innovation 2 TA
Developing the Capital Market 0.5 TA
Implementation Support to the Rooftop Solar Power Generation 1 TA
National Port Master Plan 1.5 TA
Skills Sector Enhancement Program – Additional Financing 3 G
Supporting Electricity Supply Reliability Improvement 2 G
Supporting Trade Logistics Facilitation 1.3 TA
South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation Port Access Elevated Highway 342.7 L
Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Line of Credit Project - Third Additional Financing 1.3 G
Value Chain Development for Tea Sector 1.8 TA
Tajikistan Investment Climate Reforms 1 TA
Strengthening Private Sector Participation in Technical and Vocational Education and Training 0.7 TA
Water Resources Management in Pyanj River Basin 3 G
2 TA
Skills and Employability Enhancement 1.5 G
Thailand Community-Based Flood Risk Management and Disaster Response in the Chao Phraya Basin 2 G
Gulf Energy Development Public Company Limited Cornerstone Investment in Leading Independent Power Producer 22 E
Strengthening Integrated Water Resource Planning andManagement at River Basin Level 1 TA
Strengthening Specialized and Semi-Formal Financial Institutions to Support Financial Inclusion 1.5 TA
Climate Change Adaptation in Agriculture for Enhanced Recovery and Sustainability of Highlands 2 TA
Timor Leste Coffee and Agroforestry Livelihood Improvement 3 G
Turkmenistan Improving Energy Efficiency and Capacity 1.5 TA
Uzbekistan Amu Bukhara Irrigation System Rehabilitation 100 L
Power Sector Reform and Sustainability Support Program 2 TA
Skills Strategies for Industrial Modernization and Inclusive Growth 0.9 TA
Sustainable Hydropower 2 TA
Vanuatu Cyclone Pam School Reconstruction 5 G
Viet Nam Capacity Building for Project Management Unit Professionalization 1.5 TA
Energy Efficiency for Ho Chi Minh City Water Supply 2 G
Enhancing Agricultural Competitiveness 1.8 TA
Greater Mekong Subregion Ben Luc–Long Thanh Expressway – Tranche 2 305.5 L
Implementation of Civil Service Reform Plan 1 TA
Improving Competitiveness Program 150 L
Improving Payment for Forest Ecosystem Service Implementation 1.5 TA
Second Secondary Education Sector Development Program 1 TA
Strengthening Microfinance Sector operations and Supervision 1 TA
Strengthening the Policy and Institutional Framework of Social Health Insurance 1.8 TA
Support to Viet Nam Academy of Social Sciences 1.2 TA
Regional Advancing Time Release Studies in Southeast Asia 1 TA
Agricultural Value Chain Development 75 L
Applying Space-Based Technology and Information and Communication Technology to Strengthen Disaster Resilience 2 TA
Capacity Building for Developing Qualification Frameworks under the Mutual Recognition Agreements to Support the ASEAN Economic Community by 2015 and Beyond 1.2 TA
Climate-Friendly Agribusiness Value Chains Sector 1.5 TA
DCDC Dialysis Network 5 E
Education and Skills for Employment in Central and West Asia 1 TA
Enhancing Association of Southeast Asian Nations Capital Market Integration 1.5 TA
Enhancing Capacity of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Arrangements to Facilitate Trade in the Greater Mekong Subregion 2 TA
Enhancing Regional Capacity for Economic Surveillance and Financial Vulnerability Assessment 1.2 TA
Enhancing Roles of Supreme Audit Institutions in Selected Association of Southeast Asian Nations Countries 0.8 TA
Enhancing Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes 0.8 TA
Food Security and Resilience of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Member States to Food Price Volatility 0.8 TA
Islamic Finance for Inclusive Growth 2 TA
Promoting Smart Systems in ADB's Future Cities Program 2 TA
Promoting Sustainable Energy for All in Asia and the Pacific - Sustainable Energy for All Regional Hub for Asia and the Pacific (Subproject C) (Supplementary) 2 TA
Regional Cooperation on Renewable Energy Integration to the Grid 1.5 TA
South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation Regional Energy Cooperation 1.5 TA
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation Food Security Through Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases 2 TA
Strengthening Developing Member Countries' Capacity in Elderly Care 2 TA
Strengthening Government and Civil Society Cooperation in Open Government Partnership to Improve Public Services 1 TA
Strengthening Institutional Knowledge and Capacity of Customs Administrations for Trade Facilitation within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations 1.5 TA
Strengthening Integrated Water Resources Management in Mountainous River Basins 2 TA
Strengthening Tax Policy and Administration Capacity to Mobilize Domestic Resources 1 TA
Strengthening Trade Facilitation in the Greater Mekong Subregion through Partnerships with the Private Sector 1.5 TA
Support for ASEAN+3 Bond Market Forum under the New Asian Bond Markets Initiative Medium-Term Road Map 1.6 TA
Support for ASEAN+3 Bond Market Forum: Regional Standardization of Bond Issuance Framework and Transaction Flows 1.2 TA
Supporting the Adoption of Low Carbon Technologies in Developing Member Countries 1.5 TA
Supporting the Development of Asian Bond Markets though AsianBondsOnline 1.5 TA
Supporting the Use of Carbon Financing from New Carbon Market Mechanisms to Promote Green Growth in Asia and the Pacific 1.5 TA
Targeted Pacific Financial Sector Strengthening: Supporting National Risk Assessments 0.2 TA
Trade and Transport Facilitation in the Pacific 2 TA
Building Disaster-Resilient Infrastructure through Enhanced Knowledge 2 TA
Building Financial Resilience and Stability to Reinvigorate Growth 0.9 TA
Challenges and Opportunities of Population Aging in Asia: Improving Data and Analysis for Healthy and Productive Aging 2 TA
COVID-19 Infection Prevention and Control through an Integrated Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Health Approach 2 TA
Enhance AsianBondsOnline as the Primary Bond Information Platform in ASEAN+3 2 TA
Investing in Climate Change Adaptation through Agroecological Landscape Restoration: A Nature-Based Solution for Climate Resilience 2 TA
Mitigating the Impact of COVID-19 through Community-Led Interventions 2 TA
Nowcasting and Disasters: Impact-Based Forecasting and Socioeconomic Monitoring 2 TA
Preparing Floating Solar Plus Projects under the Pacific Renewable Energy Investment Facility 2 TA
Promoting Action on Plastic Pollution from Source to Sea in Asia and the Pacific - Prioritizing and Implementing Actions to Reduce Marine Plastic Pollution (Subproject 2) 1.5 TA
Southeast Asia Agriculture, Natural Resources and Rural Development Facility (Supplementary) 1.3 TA
Southeast Asia Urban Services Facility (Supplementary) 4 TA
Support for ASEAN+3 Bond Market Forum under the Asian Bond Markets Initiative Medium-Term Road Map, 2019–2022 1.8 TA
Technology-Enabled Innovation in Education in Southeast Asia 2 TA

a E = official equity cofinancing, G = official grant cofinancing, L = official loan cofinancing, TA = technical assistance cofinancing.

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